How to Use Aluminum Bakeware Safely

by Sarah Healthy LivingComments: 79

Aluminum bakeware
Part of being a savvy homemaker is knowing when to fork out the bucks for new kitchen equipment and when not to.   That being said, I noticed a number of years ago that it can be rather costly to replace aluminum bakeware with stainless steel or enameled bakeware and for what?

Yes, aluminum is a toxic metal and you definitely don’t want it in your food for fear of long term health implications like Alzheimer’s Disease.  But, that is no reason to toss out your perfectly good aluminum cookie sheets, cake pans, and muffin tins!

You see, aluminum as it relates to bakeware is only released if you scratch it.  This I remember quite vividly from college Chemistry class.

Therefore, when removing cookies and the like from your aluminum bakeware, just take care not to use metal utensils that can easily scratch the aluminum and release this metal into your food.   Wooden spatulas would be the best choice for handling the food when working with aluminum.

There also is no risk from aluminum vapors when baking with aluminum bakeware.   The heat used for at home baking is not nearly high enough to cause inhalation dangers like what workers at aluminum plants experience.   Heating of aluminum must approach its melting point for vapors to be released (1220 F).   My oven doesn’t even get that hot when on “self cleaning” mode.

Using Aluminum Bakeware Safely

If you want to be extra careful, use unbleached parchment paper as a cover on top of the bakeware and have your food touch that instead.  For aluminum muffin tins, use unbleached baking cups.

This same approach would be advised for aluminum foil.   I see folks putting vegetables and butter in foil and wrapping it tightly to roast them .. all of which is perfectly safe.  The problem arises when they open the foil after cooking and scrape the veggies into a bowl with a metal fork!  This is a no-no.   Make sure you use only wood or plastic utensils when dealing with foil!

Watch out for store bought pie crusts that come in aluminum pie pans too.  While there is nothing wrong with baking your pie in a decent quality pie crust from the healthfood store, it becomes a problem when you cut that pie with a metal knife which scratches the aluminum pie pan underneath the food!  I’ve been to many a potluck where I wouldn’t eat a piece of pie in an aluminum pie crust pan that had been cut with a metal knife!

One last word of caution – watch out for ice cream machines.   My Cuisinart ice cream machine has an aluminum interior as do many other models.    Again, this is fine and safe as long as you don’t use a metal spoon to scrape out the last bits of ice cream that get stuck to the sides!     A small wooden spatula or spoon works great here and will not scratch that aluminum in the least.

Make Sure to Ditch Aluminum Cookware Though!

Of course, cookware is another issue entirely.  Aluminum should be avoided in that case as cooking acidic foods in aluminum can leech the metal into the food.

But as for bakeware, I still am using the same aluminum equipment I’ve used for years and have no plans to replace it with expensive stainless steel or any other material for that matter.

Teflon is a No Go in Any Form

While it’s possible to salvage your aluminum bakeware (not cookware) and still use it safely, make sure you ditch all Teflon kitchen items. Here’s a great article on why you should not use Teflon cookware OR bakeware:

Sarah, The Healthy Home Economist

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Comments (79)

  • SY

    hi Sarah, found your article, very interesting

    i just wonder, will the old scratch release vapor?
    or only new scratch after bake?

    October 19th, 2015 4:32 pm Reply
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  • Sarah

    I just bought a high end set of stainless steel pots and pans but they have that tri layer core which has aluminum. I thought if be ok since it’s not the part you cook in but the bottom base however you said absolutely no aluminum cookware? Do you include that tri layer base in that statement?:(

    September 9th, 2014 1:43 pm Reply
    • Sherry

      I’m wondering the same thing now as well. What brand(s) do you recommend?

      October 10th, 2014 9:40 am Reply
  • Melanie Charron

    From personal experience I can tell you that aluminum does cause things like Alzheimer’s and dementia. I had two grandmothers: one who only cooked organic vegetables and used cast iron or stainless steel and lived to be 93 and was sharp as a tack. My other grandmother was a registered nurse and used aluminum cookware and developed dementia and had numerouser health problems. I never use aluminum and have advised my kids to do the same. Now throwing out my Teflon-coated cookware. Thanks for all of your good advice, Sarah!

    September 9th, 2014 1:07 pm Reply
    • Terry Ryan

      This is a reckless statement that is not grounded in fact whatsoever. My grandmother is alive today at 94 and has used aluminum cookware and bakeware all her life. Grandpa ate thousands of meals prepared in that cookware and he died at 97. My Mom was raised in that home and is 77 and healthy as can be. Every report that linked aluminum cookware or bakeware to Alzheimers has been refuted and deemed unreliable MANY times over. Everyone is getting their “facts” from reports that came out 30 years ago and have been shown as fiction by universities, government, and scientists since. Natural metals are the best, plain and simple. Wake up people, look at the food chain for the problems of today. What about all these hi-tech coatings on bakeware and cookware? Natural metals have been used for hundreds of years and they are not the problem.

      July 28th, 2015 5:48 pm Reply
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  • Jacob

    Does anyone know of any ice-cream makers that don’t have an aluminium interior (preferably glass)?

    May 1st, 2014 9:57 am Reply
    • Heather

      zoku has an inexpensive small serving one with stainless steel. We also found a high end Italian one with stainless steel that we have loved and used extensively over the last year. It is a Lello brand.

      December 15th, 2015 9:35 pm Reply
  • Emily Kimbriel Ytuarte via Facebook

    Everything gets parchment, just for the easy clean-up!

    April 28th, 2014 6:42 am Reply
  • Calle McCann via Facebook

    I’ve recently started seeing ceramic bakeware, pots & pans. Do you know much about those and if they’re safe?

    April 28th, 2014 12:00 am Reply
  • Diamond Photoart via Facebook

    I always wrap aluminum foil around my head to get better reception from the mother ship. Do you think it will leach in me?

    April 27th, 2014 10:14 pm Reply
    • Stan

      Already has!

      April 28th, 2015 4:43 pm Reply
  • Linda Salls Benson via Facebook

    Slowly replacing my aluminum with stainless but parchment saves the day.

    April 27th, 2014 1:28 pm Reply
  • Helena Guðmundsdóttir via Facebook

    Ellen Inga

    April 27th, 2014 11:09 am Reply
  • Lisa Schinagel via Facebook

    I never thought about it… thanks for sharing!!! =)

    April 27th, 2014 11:06 am Reply
  • Jenna Harper via Facebook

    I’m curious does anyone know what those blue Flavourstone pans have on them ? It’s says PFOA free Saphire nonstick ?

    April 26th, 2014 4:22 pm Reply
  • Amanda Cassell via Facebook

    @The Healthy Home Economist …
    What about “Orgreenic” pans? They say it is ceramic. Is that safe? (Someone bought me one)

    April 26th, 2014 11:40 am Reply
  • Pat Chapman Patterson-Ryburn via Facebook

    For close to 40 years, I’ve been using pots/pans I thought were stainless steel. I had bought them specifically for that reason. Recently, I bought an induction cook top only to learn then these pots/pans were actually aluminum!!! I want to scream at the manufacturer…but after 40 years, I doubt it would do much good!!

    April 26th, 2014 11:30 am Reply
  • Jacqueline Newton via Facebook

    The safest way is not to use them at all!

    April 26th, 2014 11:22 am Reply
  • Toby-Wan Dawson via Facebook

    not quite true, aluminium forms an oxide layer that stops further corrosion and that layer IS burned off to a degree at cooking temperatures and so aluminium oxides are released.

    April 26th, 2014 11:07 am Reply
  • Amanda

    I was wondering is stainless steel bakeware safe? I know stainless steel cookware is but I was wondering how it is with baking. I just some aluminum baking sheets today and If stainless is better and safer I’d rather buy those and return the aluminum !
    Thank you, Amanda

    April 16th, 2014 1:57 pm Reply
  • Val

    I got rid of all the Telflon cookware a few years ago, but my son just bought me a new ceramic nonstick pan as a gift. Does anyone know whether these are safe to cook with or not?

    February 5th, 2014 12:27 pm Reply
  • fred

    How safe is unbleached parchment paper ? Did anyone look into that?

    February 5th, 2014 3:39 am Reply
  • Kathleen Sullivan Parker via Facebook

    What are your cookware recommendations?

    February 5th, 2014 2:37 am Reply
  • Adam-and Michelle Ladkins via Facebook

    Thanks. I’ll look into it. Strange it only happens with your site though

    February 5th, 2014 2:35 am Reply
  • Brittany

    Thank-you SO much for this!!! I do have a specific question for you… I received a whip cream maker so I can easily make my homemade whip cream and noticed the inside is coated in aluminum. Would it still be safe for me to use this kitchen tool? I was nervous about the acidity of the whipping cream leaching out the aluminum. Thanks so much for sharing your wisdom!!!

    February 5th, 2014 2:19 am Reply
  • Elizabeth Anderson Coonce via Facebook

    Parchment paper

    February 5th, 2014 12:26 am Reply
  • Meagan Hemingson via Facebook

    Interesting article. I’m not sure if I agree or disagree…

    February 4th, 2014 4:52 pm Reply
  • pd

    Good to know and good points. Parchment paper is great stuff, hopefully we won’t find out in a few years that it’s toxic, too!

    Re: parchment paper…it can be reused. Depending on what you cooked/baked on it, you might be able to just rinse or wipe off the parchment with a moist towel. I use parchment in my Nesco dehydrator that I custom cut myself (round with a round hole in middle) and reuse the sheets several times, unless I dry something especially goopy, like marinara sauce.

    We use aluminum foil sparingly: cover for baking fish in glassware, drip catch in the oven and lined with parchment to bake foods in foil.

    Baking stones are awesome! Found ours brand new at a thrift store.

    February 4th, 2014 4:45 pm Reply
  • Veronika

    …hmm aluminum oxidizes super fast. Within days it will oxidizes unlike other metals, it is just not visible. That’s why when you touch or rub on aluminum it leaves a black mark on your fingers, that is oxidation, not a good thing to have on your food or even on your skin as it is absorbed. Best to be washed off thoroughly with a soft cloth before using it, if you choose to use it…….. I don’t.

    February 4th, 2014 4:12 pm Reply
  • Valerie Pietsch Ammendola via Facebook

    I don’t believe this. I have used aluminum foil for things and I can taste and smell it in the food even when NO scratching or cutting was done. I would never use it to bake, cook, steam, or even cover large meat in the oven. Wasn’t there a study done on this that measured the water that dripped from the aluminum that covered meat? I haven’t thrown away all my pans since I can use cups and parchment paper. I did get rid of the bread pans, cake pans, etc that were aluminum.

    February 4th, 2014 4:06 pm Reply
  • sarah w.

    I am obsessed with your website, but have to disagree with you on this one.
    I would run away from Aluminum at all costs, even the WAPF says to avoid aluminum.

    February 4th, 2014 4:01 pm Reply
    • Sarah TheHealthyHomeEconomist

      The healthy baking video I filmed myself for the WAPF says using parchment paper is fine (script approved by Sally Fallon Morell herself). There is a safe way to use aluminum … bakeware only, NOT cookware.

      February 5th, 2014 8:41 am Reply
  • Isabel Johnson via Facebook

    Why buy aluminum bakeware and stress about not scratching it. One wrong move and it’s trash. You can’t even wash it without risking scratches. Ditch it. Ceramic and glass are much better alternatives that last and you can even use a knife to cut into the cake, pie, pizza, meatloaf while it’s still in the bakeware.

    February 4th, 2014 3:49 pm Reply
  • Adam-and Michelle Ladkins via Facebook

    I think your site has been hacked or bugged. On my ipad and on my husband’s Samsung phone whenever I click on a link from Facebook to your site a warning appears (a dodgy fake warning that has only one button). If you click on the button you are redirected to another site. This has been happening for a few months.

    February 4th, 2014 3:34 pm Reply
    • ErinCF

      Me too…some days it is so intrusive I cant even read because I keep being redirected.

      February 4th, 2014 11:19 pm Reply
  • Janice Collazo via Facebook

    What about using aluminum foil to reheat food in the toaster oven. If that isn’t safe, then how would you reheat food?

    February 4th, 2014 2:43 pm Reply
    • Donna

      We line the baking sheet that comes with the toaster oven with parchment paper before reheating food. We also sometimes reheat food in a small glass or ceramic dish and place directly in the rack in the toaster oven.

      February 5th, 2014 12:43 am Reply
  • Linore Burkard

    So glad to know about the “scratch” effect of aluminum and that bakeware can be used safely (though I’ve already purged my aluminum). Just popping in to clear up a common mistake I see over and over again, and you’ll have to forgive an English major for caring: but the word “Leech” is a little aquatic worm, or, in some cases, can refer to a person who drains resources from others. When speaking of a metal contaminating a carrier (ie., food) the term is “Leach.” Thank you. :)

    February 4th, 2014 2:15 pm Reply
  • Natasha Farrell via Facebook

    Having to be careful not to scratch

    February 4th, 2014 1:39 pm Reply
  • Angie Smiley via Facebook

    So I use an Italian (aluminum) moka for brewing coffee (as does most of the Italians I know)….guessing this is a no no?

    February 4th, 2014 1:16 pm Reply
  • Wanda Colbert Brigman via Facebook

    What about silpat sheets?

    February 4th, 2014 12:53 pm Reply
  • Natasha Farrell via Facebook

    I’d still rather not take the risk. I tossed mine and collected thrift store ceramic and glassware. My muffin pan is stone, my daughter bought it for me for Christmas from JC Penney for $20. I found a stone baking pan from a thrift store as well. If you’re on a really tight budget you could sell your old stuff and thrift new items. Pyrex stuff is abundant.

    February 4th, 2014 12:29 pm Reply
    • megan

      GREAT idea!

      February 4th, 2014 4:19 pm Reply
  • Susan@homemaker-mom.com

    Very interesting. Then what type of cookware is safe for me to use?? I would love to know… I am interested in this.

    February 4th, 2014 12:26 pm Reply
    • LEM

      Use stainless steel cookware instead.

      February 4th, 2014 1:12 pm Reply
  • Stephen Blackbourn

    My take on Teflon is that it only gives off toxic fumes if it’s heated to very high temperatures.

    February 4th, 2014 12:13 pm Reply
  • Erin Renfro via Facebook

    Thanks for addressing this, it has been a big concern for me for a while!

    February 4th, 2014 12:02 pm Reply
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  • Terence Kendrick

    Was wanting to make home made sour dough hot dog buns and have found hot dog bun pans online. However, they seem to be made of aluminized steel. Here is one example http://www.chefscatalog.com/product/28168-usa-pan-nonstick-new-england-hot-dog-bun-pan.aspx. Was wondering if you thought these were safe.

    Thanks :)

    December 21st, 2012 4:40 am Reply
  • watchmom3

    I really appreciate this article and I am following your suggestions. I have 2 questions: I use a calphalon pan to scramble eggs, never use metal instruments; is that ok? I don’t use high heat. Also, I am considering buying a juicer; do you use one and I found a Jack LaLane for very reasonable. What do you think of it? One last thing…I am so hopeful to get to come and meet you in person at the Dallas, Texas seminar in Nov! SO EXCITING to think of being surrounded by so many like-minded folks!!! God bless!

    October 28th, 2011 11:59 am Reply
  • Mandy

    What’s the word on this new silicon bakeware/utensils/etc?

    I got a piece or two to try it out. Seems to bake fine, but I’m wondering if there are any health issues to consider.

    July 14th, 2011 8:45 pm Reply
  • Svilen

    It is a good idea to look for anodized aluminum. It is harder and more durable than ordinary aluminum; it’s more scratch resistant; and it doesn’t rust or react with foods.

    Here is a link that might be useful:
    http://www.helpful-kitchen-tips.com/kitchen-blog/2009/03/16/bakeware-review-bakeware-sets-cake-pans-muffin-pans/

    February 25th, 2011 9:25 am Reply
  • maelene

    I almost felt guilty for not using them great post. I'd like to hear what you think about herbal home remedies

    July 1st, 2010 1:55 pm Reply
  • Cindy

    Regarding silicone bakeware, all the "healthy" websites I found said that it was stable up to well over 500 degrees F. However, I was very disappointed with its performance – cleanup is not much fun either. I do have a couple of silicone spatulas that work great – I prefer silicone to other plastics that could be less "stable."

    June 30th, 2010 10:19 am Reply
    • Lisa

      I love my silicone mats for the cookie sheets! I don’t understand the comment about clean-up being hard because for me, it makes clean-up easier. Food does not burn on and stick to the pan. I have a slicone muffin pan and you do have to put it on a cookie sheet for stability which makes one more thing to wash but the muffins pop right out. You can even push the pan inside out to wash easier. I’m pretty sure I bought my first Silpat sheet about 15 years ago and it’s still very nice. Any other metal bakeware would be scratched up and ruined in my house within five years. We did ruin one small mat when my husband put it in the bottom of a pan to roast veggies so it doesn’t work for everything.

      February 5th, 2014 12:10 pm Reply
  • Cindy

    I have aluminum bakeware – I bought inexpensive stainless steel once but it rusted horribly – and my bakeware has already been scratched by metal spatulas, etc. Is it now unsafe, or is it "current" scratching that causes the problems? I use mine mostly to bake rolls from freshly ground whole grain flour.

    Cindy

    June 30th, 2010 10:17 am Reply
    • Carmie

      Cindy (and anyone reading this), the STAINLESS steel does not rust. The plain steel rusts like crazy if not handled like cast iron, in that it must be THOROUGHLY dried immediately after cleaning. I have STAINLESS steel pots, pans, and baking sheets that never rust, but my bread pans are plain steel. I must remove the loaves right out of the oven, wipe them out with a cloth, using water if necessary to get them clean, then put them back in the still hot but cooling oven to get them really dry fast. It’s no big deal, just a new habit to learn. They have darkened over the years with use and make nice crusts on the bread now.

      February 4th, 2014 3:49 pm Reply
      • F

        Hi Carmie,

        What stainless steel cookware and bakeware do you use? I have done a little bit of research and have found that some stainless steel cookware has aluminum in it and the bakeware has aluminum as well…and a couple brands are made in china… Just wondering what brand(s) you have? I buy organic food and then cook it in what I now know to be TOXIC cookware…what’s the point!? I’m trying to keep my family as safe and healthy as possible, and then I find out even more crap like this…the govt. should be regulating this stuff a lot more!

        Thank you, Carmie.

        November 6th, 2014 10:44 pm Reply
  • Kelly the Kitchen Kop

    Sarah,
    I linked to this in my post today – I love your suggestions. :)
    Kel

    June 30th, 2010 3:30 am Reply
  • Andrea

    Thanks for the great post – I love things that challenge my way of thinking. I would tend to frown at aluminum anything too, but this has put me at ease a bit about he massive aluminum cookie sheets we have in our community kitchen (they do get covered with parchment paper too). I recently bought (second-hand) some metal ice cube trays – I'm pretty sure that they're aluminum, but now I don't have to worry about using them – for water at least, the original plan was for lemon juice when/if I could test to see what metal it was. I'm assuming the lemon will cause the aluminum to leech, even if it isn't being heated. In regards to silicone I was told by my chiropractor (who is VERY into health and gives Real Food seminars and stuff) that it is not safe.

    June 29th, 2010 11:04 pm Reply
  • Sarah, the Healthy Home Economist

    I think the teflon have other dangers like fumes being released when heated. Kelly the Kitchen Kop has a blog about teflon dangers today:
    kellythekitchenkop.com
    I am not familiar with silicone soft bakeware – if you are going to replace, glass would be your best choice.

    June 29th, 2010 8:33 pm Reply
    • megan

      silicone…like everything that comes on the market, nothing is tested for years. they put it out there and let us be the lab rat. wait about 10 more years and see what is said about it before you use it. I use the ‘rubber’ silicone scalers but never use on anything hot. and use just to pull stuff out of mixer or such so it is very minimill. hard to if rubber these days without spending a bunch. even my kids pace is silicone. rubber just cast to much.

      February 5th, 2014 9:30 am Reply
  • Alina

    Your post made me look at what I have and it turned out that I have a lot of non stick bake ware, which I guess is a no no?
    I have also found some, I believe, silicone muffin bake ware. What do you think of the silicone, rubbery, soft bake ware( I do not know if they are all made out of silicone)? Are they bad?
    Thank you.

    June 29th, 2010 8:21 pm Reply
  • Sarah, the Healthy Home Economist

    Unbleached paper muffin cups work well also for those aluminum muffin pans. Yes, to be extra safe, a good idea to use the parchment paper and the aluminum cookie sheets.

    June 29th, 2010 3:54 pm Reply
    • Donna

      Parchment paper is good for more than just aluminum bakeware. I have been lining my foil packs with un-bleached parchment paper for years. I like to roast potatoes and beets in foil packs on the top shelf of our grill. I take a large piece of heavy-duty aluminum foil, then place a similarly sized piece of un-bleached parchment paper in top of it, add cut veggies, butter/ghee (sometimes with a little olive oil too) and salt, toss with my hands on top the parchment, and carefully roll up the foil pack. Works great, and the foil does not touch our food.

      February 5th, 2014 12:38 am Reply
  • Anonymous

    Sarah, I don't think we are that far apart. You can use the bakeware safely if you always cover it with the parchment paper you recommended.

    The basic rule is to never let aluminum touch any food with salt or acid in it, because even a little can cuse a reaction that will put aluminum into the food.

    Good point about the probiotics, we can't have enough protection against all the heavy metals in this very toxic world.

    June 29th, 2010 3:47 pm Reply
  • Sarah, the Healthy Home Economist

    Sorry, previous comment not clear. Definitely get rid of aluminum cookware, but aluminum bakeware is easily handled safely and I have chosen not to throw mine out. Also note that regularly consuming probiotic foods and having a gut in good shape is highly protective of any exposure to heavy metals that does take place living in this toxic world.

    June 29th, 2010 3:26 pm Reply
  • Sarah, the Healthy Home Economist

    Please note that I do not use aluminum cookware and made this distinction in the blog post. There is no reason to throw it out as long as you are careful using it. In this economy, we must make sure that we don't sound the alarm bell on every single little thing and give people alternatives to continue using products they already have in a safe manner. It would be much better for people to spend that money on REAL food rather than spend a lot of money on bakeware that is fine the way it is and just needs to be handled safely.

    June 29th, 2010 3:10 pm Reply
    • Sarah – reader

      Using parchment paper would be the compromise, I think between throwing the bake ware out, and risking your health. The extra precaution is well worth the extra cost, effort of the paper!
      thanks to both of you , Sarah and the conscientious commenter!

      February 4th, 2014 2:27 pm Reply
  • Anonymous

    Sarah, I have to disagree with you on this one.

    The Weston A Price Foundation clearly states that aluminum cookware should never be used.

    Even unscratched aluminum cookware can leech Aluminum into the food, if the food has salt or acid in it.(Nourishing Traditions, page 66, paragraph entitled "Stainless steel") Many doughs have salt and/or acid in them, and will react with aluminum bakeware.

    Aluminum pans scratch very easily, and can have scratches form the factory, transportation, simply being bumped into another pan. If you look at the surface with a magnifying glass, you might find a lot of tiny scratches you did not know were there.

    Aluminum foil will crinkle and crack when bent or rolled, releasing aluminum into the food. Many of the food wrapped in aluminum foil contain acids, such as meat. I have tasted aluminum in meat cooked in aluminum foil.

    I watched 3 of the people I loved the most die slowly from Alzheimers. It was horrible. The mind dies function by function. These were all brilliant people, and they lost all memory, of everybody. They lost the ability to control their bowels, feed themselves,talk, understand language, Eventually they even lost the ability to swallow their own saliva, and even food. Aluminum causes Alzheimers.

    We use pyrex for baking. It is cheap,and works very well. I think the parchment paper would work, as long as it had no holes and the aluminum never touched the food.

    June 29th, 2010 3:04 pm Reply
    • megan

      I agree with you. and the way to replace is one at a time if that is how you can. We did it. It took 4 or 5 years. but I have none now. I do use foil when camping some tho so will take the tips to minimize those few times a year.

      February 5th, 2014 9:22 am Reply
  • Rick

    THANK YOU… I was feeling guilty for not getting rid of all of our baking sheets and muffin pans. I bought SS baking sheets and threw out MOST of our other ones…. this is good to hear.

    June 29th, 2010 1:50 pm Reply
  • Lisa Wallen Logsdon

    Oh my! Good news about the foil. I had given up cooking food in foil because I was afraid it was unsafe to do so. Lots of good tips in this article, thanks!

    June 29th, 2010 1:44 pm Reply
  • Farmgirl Cyn

    Ooh, Sarah! You are near and dear to my heart!
    Replacing my aluminum cookware would be nigh unto impossible right now, and you have given some great hints on how to keep what I DO have safe for my family.
    Thanks,
    Cindy
    FarmgirlCyn

    June 29th, 2010 12:59 pm Reply
    • Susan Pearce

      Bakeware is what Sarah is saying she uses, but she says not to use aluminum cookware.

      February 4th, 2014 2:32 pm Reply

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