Table of Contents[Hide][Show]
The evidence? Nonexistent when you do the fact-checking. (Complete list of scientific references at the article’s end.)
Filmmakers Kip Andersen and Keegan Kuhn try to stir up some credible statistics to support their vegan agenda, but to those who understand the scientific method, this film is totally unconvincing. They repeatedly indulge in what’s called confirmation bias, i.e., talk only to those who believe exactly as you do; offer a few studies with cherry-picked data; and never admit to the extensive body of opposing evidence from highly respected sources. Oh, and be sure to stick in some emotional testimony and made-for-Hollywood drama. This is sure to work up fear and dread in your viewers.
I do appreciate that the filmmakers remind us of the link between poor food choices and disease, whether vegan or omnivore. However, What the Health is irresponsible journalism. It fails to present any valid evidence that an omnivorous diet is inherently unhealthy and that plants-only eating is the road to disease-free good health.
Below are 9 reasons why What the Health will have you shaking your head in disbelief long before the credits roll.
Inconvenient Science Conveniently Omitted
Conveniently omitted from this heavily biased documentary are decades of research confirming that the healthiest, longest-living populations on earth consume fish, meat, and/or dairy as a regular part of their diet, along with an abundance of plants. These cultures include, among others:
- Japanese (Okinawa)
- Italians (Sardinia)
- Costa Ricans (Nicoya)
- Greeks (Ikaria)
Sardinia: Long Lived Blue Zone
As one of many examples, Sardinia boasts more centenarians than anywhere else on the planet. (Age 75 is considered youthful here!) Residents on this Mediterranean island consume plentiful local sheep or goat’s milk, rich in protein, calcium, zinc and anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids.
Their diet is low in sugary foods and high in fresh vegetables. Small quantities of local fish or meat are eaten several times a week, and an afternoon glass of red wine is considered essential—alongside a generous chunk of goat cheese.
Sardinians, whose livestock roam on open pasture, enjoy enormous benefits from their varied diet and active lifestyle. These benefits include high bone density, low risk for fractures, and low chronic disease rates. Conversely, research to date on vegans reveals significantly lower bone mineral densities compared to meat or dairy eaters. Moreover, vegans suffer from a substantially higher risk for fractures and osteoporosis.
Serious Vegan Health Issues
Why does What the Health fail to even mention all the health issues that cause many vegans to quit? These health woes, showing up in many respected studies, include:
- Seriously low serum levels of brain-protective DHA omega-3 fatty acids
- High levels of pro-inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids
- Increased risk of anxiety and depression
- Increased risk of dental caries and gum disease
- Inadequate protein and calories during critical growth years
- Fertility issues, including low sperm count
- Vanishing menstrual periods due to insufficient calories and fat to support normal hormone production as females try to “get vegan skinny” (Amenorrhea, the loss of menses for 3 months or more, has serious implications for reproductive and heart health.)
What about the claim that meat and dairy eaters are harming their hearts? Data from four combined studies—two Seventh-day Adventist plus the EPIC-Oxford and Heidelberg—conclude that both fish eaters and dairy/egg consumers have lower levels of heart disease incidence than vegans.
Well Researched Mediterranean Diets Ignored
Rigorously studied for over half a century, traditional Mediterranean-style diets are consistently lauded by nutrition authorities as the world’s healthiest, resulting in prolonged life and reduced risk for cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. Included in these high-fat diets are nuts, olive oil, fresh fish, legumes and veggies, with pastured meat, eggs, and fermented dairy consumed in moderate amounts.
While the world’s best diets contain plentiful phenol-loaded plants, they are not vegetarian—and not even close to vegan.
Why were all these long-life, hale and hearty populations—the world’s so-called “blue zones”—never mentioned in What the Health? Because veganism is agenda-driven. And when you start with a conviction instead of a question, you put on blinders to an abundance of scientific and historical evidence.
Not once does this film recognize traditional, whole food omnivorous diets that confer superior health and have stood the test of time. Just as critical, it fails to present even one population group that has thrived on a vegan diet. Why? Because there are none.
Instead, What the Health plays on our fears and indulges in bias and bad science.
And I won’t even comment on narrator Andersen’s habit of showing up unannounced at institutes like the American Cancer Society, insisting that receptionists respond to his urgent questions about diet and disease links. When these front desk, low-paid employees aren’t able to answer his questions, he concludes this is proof of collusion and deception.
Stuck in the 1980s
In their rush to condemn all animal-derived nutrition, the filmmakers fail to make the critical distinction between GMO corn-fed factory animals from Big Ag and grass-raised herbivores from family farms; between highly processed dairy, like America’s sugar-drenched uncultured yogurt, and the acidophilus-rich, protein-dense organic yogurt eaten by healthy Greeks for centuries.
In failing to distinguish the nutrient-dense, grass-fed animal nourishment of our ancestors from the processed, GMO grain-stuffed, antibiotic-injected animal food thrust upon an unwitting public for the past 50 years, What the Health loses all credibility. It’s like this film is stuck in the 1980s, with a few carefully selected pro-vegan doctors spouting old, invalidated myths to advance their belief system.
What The Health Sound Bites Debunked
“Americans eat way too much protein!”
Actually, nearly 60% of us fail to meet even the minimum daily protein requirement to avoid muscle wasting, according to the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Recommendations have been steadily rising, especially for active people, and our protein needs increase further as we age.
“We are not carnivorous apes!”
Umm, apes aren’t carnivores and neither are humans. A doctor actually said that??
“The largest, strongest animals are herbivores!”
They also have simple brains. Despite almost non-stop grazing, large herbivores simply can’t get enough calories and essential nutrients on their vegan diet to support a large, complicated, labyrinth brain. Energetically, it’s an evolutionary trade-off. Omnivorous humans got smaller bodies, way smarter brains.
More myths spouted by this nonsensical film
“Eating 1 egg per day is just as bad as smoking 5 cigarettes per day!”
“More carbs equals less diabetes!”
“All animal food is bad for you!”
Never, of course, does this film note that whole eggs are rated the highest in biological value of all foods (a perfect 100, along with breast milk); that they don’t raise cholesterol in the vast majority of us; and a plethora of new studies confirm it’s healthy to eat an egg every single day.
Likewise, a growing number of experts believe diabetics need to monitor their carbs and reduce intake.
The filmmakers also refuse to acknowledge that high cholesterol has been vindicated as the cause of heart disease: half of all heart attack victims have normal cholesterol levels. And the renowned Framingham Heart Study adds a further fascinating twist: “In Framingham, the more saturated fat one ate, the more cholesterol one ate, the more calories one ate, the lower the person’s serum cholesterol.”
The vegan propensity to select a few outlier sources that support their ideology—and ignore exceptional research recognized by the larger scientific community—creates a huge trustworthiness gap in their argument. The pro-vegan China Study has been debunked for this same reason; moreover, it didn’t even study vegans!
Meanwhile, we won’t know the lifetime health results of today’s vegans for several generations. It’s simply too new a diet in human history.
Veganism Has ZERO Historical Record of Success
Another basic truth remains unspoken in this misleading film.
Not once is it revealed to would-be vegans that a plants-only diet is new in human history.
Except for a few scattered, tiny enclaves of religious cults over the centuries (and we’ve no idea if they died young or old), veganism as an extended lifestyle has never been done before.
As I write in Vegan Betrayal: “Veganism is, in a word, untested. Only now it is being tested on the bodies of our daughters, sons, friends and lovers, maybe even you.”
So why are vegan proselytizers promoting this restrictive diet for everyone—adults, children, even infants—when we don’t yet have the lifelong health data to know if this non-historical leap to plants-only will prove wise or tragic?
Proposed Law in Italy Would Jail Parents of Vegan Children
In Italy, 5th “longest-life” nation on earth (just behind ham-loving Spain and dairy-adoring Switzerland), a proposed law would mean jail time for parents who force a vegan diet on their children. In France, the parents of a baby breastfed by a vegan mother who died from malnourishment did indeed serve time in jail.
I don’t necessarily agree with this, but we also can’t argue with Italy and France’s outstanding omnivorous health results. Which brings us to Italian Emma Morano who, upon reaching 116 years, credited her astonishingly long life to daily fresh eggs and an early bedtime.
Veganism is Not A Bloodless Diet
Although their long-term health outcomes are unknown, vegans seem convinced they are at least winning the ethical argument. So the creators of What the Health chose to include scenes of animal slaughter, and that’s a good thing. All meat eaters need to comprehend the source of their food, numbers involved, and ethical and environmental implications.
But what this film fails to disclose is that industrial plant agriculture, which almost all vegans rely upon (think Whole Foods, Natural Grocers, Safeway, etc.) is responsible for the death of billions of wild animals. How so? From scraping away the native landscape, intensive field operations, pesticides if non-organic, and fish-killing nitrogen runoff into rivers and lakes.
In many cases, whole intact ecosystems—grasslands, wetlands, forests—are destroyed in order to cultivate giant fields of hemp, flax, rice, soy, peas, wheat, etc. By contrast, Alaska’s wild salmon fisheries are a rare example of ecosystem sustainability in the commercial world.
Yes, entire food chains of native animals and plants once thrived in our agricultural fields, and most of that land is used to feed humans. (Just 33% of croplands worldwide are used for livestock feed, according to the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization.) Is the life of a field mouse of less worth than that of a chicken? Not according to PETA and animal rights doctrine.
Veggie or omnie, everyone who eats large-scale industrial food is implicated. So if these film-makers really care about animals, they should be telling all of us to stop supporting carbon-intensive, soil-depleting, wild-animal-destroying industrial agriculture. And give our loyalty and dollars instead to small, organic, no-till, mixed animal-plant farms which replenish the soil, store carbon, and regenerate the earth!
Vegans Dropping Out En Masse
Political vegans, the kind who preach or make biased documentaries, want you and everybody in the world to go vegan just like them. It’s very similar to the fervor of a religious fundamentalist. Their way is the only way. And the rest of us have not yet “seen the light.”
The truth is a lot of ex-vegans HAVE seen the light. According to a large respected survey, 70% of vegans ditch their diet; 86% of vegetarians. Nearly 1/3 of these vegans/vegetarians cite poor health as a prime factor, with 82% from this group confirming that their health improved within 2 days to 3 months once meat was reintroduced.
But this survey was conducted by the American Beef Association, right?
No, it was conducted by a pro-vegan group, The Humane Research Council, which was hoping to uncover very different statistics. Releasing these damaging numbers is testimony not only to the integrity of this group, but the failure of veganism as a valid, complete, long-term diet. Health concerns commonly cited by vegans include:
- ongoing fatigue
- endocrine disruption/loss of menses
- poor sleep
- dental problems, including demineralization
- plummeting concentration and brain fog
Vegans do get favorable marks for lower blood pressure and body weight. Certainly you can lose pounds on this low-calorie diet. And if you’re old, obese and diseased, it can start you on a path toward better health. Traditional healing practices prescribe a vegan-type diet as temporary medicine for just such times—much like your dog seeking grass when he’s sick. So yes, short-term veganism may work for purposes of cleansing or healing from illness or disease. However, this restricted diet was never, ever meant to be a long-term lifestyle.
Missing Nutrients in Plants
Nutrient deficiencies can take years to reveal themselves and by then any damage to your health can be severe or even permanent. That’s unfortunate because there are a whole lot of nutrients and compounds in animals that aren’t found in plants, or exist in deficient quantities. These include vitamin B12, vitamin D3, retinol (true vitamin A), taurine (a functional nutrient), carnitine, carnosine, heme iron, creatine, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and the long-chain fatty acid DHA. (Research on algal DHA is largely industry-funded; thus far it shows increased LDL cholesterol.)
What’s more, nutritional science is still in its infancy. New nutrients and co-factors are continually being discovered, and isolated supplements can never replace the complex synergy of whole foods. Eating a wide variety of organic, whole, real foods from both plants and animals—as all the longest-living populations on earth do—is the very best way to ensure your body is getting all the nutrients it needs. Our ancestors resorted to eating only plants during times of drought or illness, not by choice, and always returned to a mixed diet in order to get the entire palette of nutrients that humans evolved to need. And yes, despite what this film infers, the science is clear: our human ancestors were omnivores.
What Anthropologists Say About Plants-Only Diets
“Animal foods play a special role in the nutritional physiology of our species,” confirms anthropologist Marvin Harris. The hominoid that rigidly stuck to plants, the big-jawed vegetarian with massive molars, Paranthropus robustus, did not in the end turn out to be so robust. Its line went extinct. The Homo erectus line survived in large part due to a varied diet that included meat, resulting in a large, complex, problem-solving brain. Meanwhile, the docile, plant-eating P. robustus vanished into the African mist.
Researcher Suzana Herculano-Houzel of the Institute of Biomedical Sciences confirms:
It is biologically implausible that humans evolved our large brain on a plants-only diet.
Our ancestors needed meat in order to obtain all of the nutrient-dense calories, proteins, fatty acids, and vitamin B12 required for large-brain evolution and maintenance.
What The Health: Confusing Ideology with Facts
In summary, pro-vegan advocates, including the directors of What the Health, are confusing ideology with the facts. Yet the science is clear. Our ancestors, including our great-grandparents, ate whole animal food along with plants—and thrived. (Past humans died from infectious diseases, not cancer, diabetes, and heart attacks.) Understanding how our bodies evolved to need the nutritional collaboration of both plant and animal food is a fascinating journey—and one that every vegan or would-be vegan should undertake.
Anthropology, history, and non-biased nutrition research tell us something very different than “eat only plants!” Moderation, not extremism. Plentiful plants balanced with select amounts of highly nutritious, animal-based whole foods, like wild Alaskan salmon, wild sardines, and pastured organic eggs. Vegans are messing with our complex dietary co-evolution with other animals and plants. And they’re dropping out in droves for good reasons.
Bottom line: this film offers a simplistic, sensationalized view of humankind’s evolution and dietary needs. It lacks complexity, credible evidence, and any real depth of understanding.
Abuissa, Hussam, et al. “Realigning our 21ST Century Diet and Lifestyle With Our Hunter-Gatherer Genetic
Identity.” Directions in Psychiatry 25 (2005): SR1-10.
Agrawal, R., and F. Gomez-Pinilla. “Metabolic syndrome in the brain: deficiency in omega-3 fatty acid
exacerbates dysfunctions in insulin receptor signaling-cognition.” J of Physiology 590.10 (2012): 2485.
Albert, Paul, and Chawki Benkelfat. “The neurobiology of depression: revisiting the serotonin hypothesis.”
Philos Trans of the Royal Society 368:1615 (2013): n.p. Web. 2 Oct 2012.
Aloufy, A., and Y. Latzer. “The linkage between vegetarianism and anorexia nervosa.” Harefuah 45.7
(2006): 526-31, 549.
Ambroszkiewicz, J., et al. “The influence of vegan diet on bone mineral density and biochemical bone
turnover markers.” Pediatric Endocrinology Diabetes & Metabolism 16.3 (2010): 201-04.
Ames, Bruce N., and Joyce C. McCann. “Vitamin K, an example of triage theory.” Am Journal of Clinical
Nutrition 90.4 (2009): 889-907.
Appleby, P., et al. “Mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in the UK.” Am J of Clinical
Nutrition 103.1 (2016): 218-230. “Similar all-cause mortality” is the conclusion from this study of
pooled data from > 60,000 UK–based vegetarians/vegans and comparable meat eaters.
—–, et al. “Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford.” Eur Journal of
Clinical Nutrition 61.12 (2007): 1400-06.
—–, et al. “Mortality in British Vegetarians.” Public Health Nutrition 5.1 (2002): 29-36.The EPIC-Oxford
Study found vegetarians to have 2.5 the number of deaths for mental and neurological diseases.
—–, et al. “Oxford vegetarian study: an overview.” Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70 (1999): 525S–31S.
Arikawa, A.Y., et al. “Consumption of a high glycemic load but not a high glycemic index diet is marginally
associated with oxidative stress in young women.” Nutrition Research 35.1 (2015): 7-13.
Armas, L.A., et al. “Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans.” Journal of Clinical
Endocrinology & Metabolism 89 (2004): 5387-91.
Aro, A., et al. “Inverse relation between conjugated linoleic acid in adipose breast tissue and risk of breast
cancer. A case-control study.” Inform 10.5 (1999): S43.
Asher, Kathyrn, et al. Study of Current and Former Vegetarians and Vegans. Humane Research Council.
Dec 2014, p. 4. The study concludes: “84% of vegetarians/vegans abandon their diet.”
Balk, E., et al. “Effects of Soy on Health Outcomes.” Agency for Healthcare Research. Evidence Report 126.
August 2005. Web. 30 Nov 2013.
Bardone-Cone, Anna, PhD, et al. “The Inter-relationships between Vegetarianism and Eating Disorders
among Females.” Journal of Academy of Nutrition and Diet 112.8 (2012): 1247-52.
Barrett, Julia R. “The Science of Soy: What do we really know?” Environmental Health Perspectives 114.6
Bauer, Jurgen, et al. “Evidence-Based Recommendations for Optimal Dietary Protein Intake in Older
People.” Journal of the Am Medical Directors Assoc 14.8 (2013): 542-59.
Behrenbeck, Thomas, MD. “Can your total cholesterol level be too low?” Mayo Clinic: Diseases and
Conditions. 2014. Web. 20 Dec 2014.
Belli, Brita. “Rice Paddies Have a Methane Problem.” E, the enviro magazine. 22 Oct 2012.
Blaisdell, Aaron, et al. “From heart beats to health recipes: The role of fractal physiology in the Ancestral
Health movement.” Journal of Evolution and Health 1.1 (2013): n.p. Web. 30 Dec 2013.
Blesso, Christopher, et al. “Whole egg consumption improves lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity.”
Metabolism 62.3 (2013): 400-10.
Boldyrev, A., et al. “Biochemical and physiological evidence that carnosine is an endogenous neuro-
protector against free radicals.” Cellular & Molecular Neurobiology 17.2 (1997): 259-71.
—–, et al. “Carnosine Protects Against Excitotoxic Cell Death Independently of Effects on Reactive Oxygen
Species.” Neuroscience 94:2 (1999): 571-77.
Bouckenooghe, T., et al. “Is taurine a functional nutrient?” Cur Opin Clin Nutr Met Care 9.6 (2006): 728-33.
Bousquet, M., et al. “Beneficial effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on toxin-induced
neuronal degeneration in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease.” FASEB Journal 22 (2008): 1213-25.
Bratman, Steven, MD. Health Foods: Orthorexia Nervosa: Overcoming the Obsession with Healthful
Eating. New York: Broadway Books, 2001.
Bunn, H.T. “Meat Made Us Human.” Evolution of the Human Diet. Ed. P. Ungar. Oxford U Press, 2006.
Busko, Marlene. “Lipids Suffer Less When Less Saturated Fat is Replaced by Carbs in Worldwide Study.”
Medscape. 9 June 2016. Web. 25 Feb 2017.
Campbell, Bill, et al. “International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: protein and exercise.” 4.8
(2007): n.p. Web 30 Sept 2012.
Campbell, T. Colin, PhD. “Animal vs. Plant Protein.” T. Colin Campbell Center for Nutrition Studies.
Nutritionstudies. 2014. Web. 20 May 2014.
—–, and Thomas M. Campbell II. The China Study: Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss, and Long-
term Health. Dallas: BenBella Books, 2005.
Campbell, W.W. “Dietary Protein Requirements of Older People: Is the RDA Adequate?” Nutrition Today
31.5 (1996): 192-97.
Capewell, Simon, and John McMurray. “Coronary heart disease trends in France and elsewhere.” Heart
84.2 (2000): 121-22.
Castelli, William, MD. “Response to the Adventist Health Study.” Archives of Int Med 152 (1992): 1371-72.
Chang-Claude, J., et al. “Lifestyle determinants and mortality in German vegetarians and health-conscious
persons: a 21-year follow-up (Heidelberg Study).” Cancer Epidemio Bio Prevention 14.4 (2005): 963-68.
A vegetarian vs. non-vegetarian diet had “no effect on overall mortality” for health conscious people.
Cherbuin, Nicolas, PhD, et al. “Higher normal fasting plasma glucose is associated with hippocampal
atrophy: The PATH Study.” Neurology 4.79 (2012): 1019-26.
Chernoff, R. “Protein and Older Adults.” J of the American College of Nutrition 23.6S (2004): 627S-30S.
“Collateral included deaths in organic rice production.” googleforum: animal.ethics.vegetarian. 1 Jan
2000. Web. 30 Oct 2013.
Collura, Randall. “What is our Natural Diet and Should We Really Care?” Food for Thought: The Debate
Over Eating Meat. Ed. Steve Sapontiz. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2004, pp. 36-45.
Colpo, Anthony. The Great Cholesterol Con. Lulu Books, 2006. pp. 34, 49.
“Confessions of an Ex-Vegetarian.” FoodVibe. 15 Oct 2008. Web. 5 Dec 2011.
Contie, Vicki. “Choline Deficiency May Hinder Fetal Brain Development.” National Institutes of Health. 26
July 2010. Web. 30 Nov 2013.
Cordain, Loren, PhD. “Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macro energy estimations in worldwide hunter-
gatherer diets.” Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71.3 (2000): 682-92.
—–, et al. “Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for 21st century.” Am Journal of
Clinical Nutrition 81.2 (2005): 341-54.
Costa da, K.A., et al. “Choline deficiency increases lymphocyte apoptosis and DNA damage in humans.”
Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84.1 (2006): 88-94.
Courage, Katherine H. “Early Meat-Eating Human Ancestors Thrived While Vegetarian Hominin Died Out.”
Scientific American. 8 Aug 2012. Web. 30 Oct 2012.
Cousens, Gabriel. “Problems with Vegan Diets.” GreenMedInfo. 14 Sept 2012. Web. 2 May 2014.
Craig, Winston J. “Health effects of vegan diets.” Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89.5 (2009): 1627S-33S.
Crowe F.L., et al. “Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians
and nonvegetarians: EPIC-Oxford.” Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 30 Jan 2013. Web. 28 May 2013.
Dagnelie, P.C., et al. “Vitamin B-12 from algae appears not to be bioavailable.” Am Journal of Clinical
Nutrition 53 (1991): 695-97.
Datz, Todd. “Eating processed meats, but not unprocessed red meats, may raise risk of heart disease and
diabetes.” Harvard School of Public Health. 17 May 2010. Web. 30 Sept 2014.
Davis, Brenda, RD, and Vesanto Melina, RD. Becoming Vegan. Summertown, TN: Book Publishing, 2000,
pp. 21-24, 35, 58-64, 94-104, 154. See pages 19-37 for a discussion of vegan diets and chronic disease.
Davis, Steven L. “The Least Harm Principle May Require that Humans Consume a Diet Containing Large
Herbivores, Not a Vegan Diet.” Journal of Agricultural and Enviro Ethics 16.4 (2003): 387-94.
Deans, Emily, MD. “Your Brain on Creatine.” Evolutionary Psychiatry. 10 Feb. 2012. Web. 1 Feb 2015.
Dehghan, M., et al. “Association of nutrients with blood lipids in 19 countries and 5 continents: the PURE
study.” Global Heart. 11.2S (2016): e6.
“Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and
Amino Acids.” Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academies: Washington DC,
2002. Updated Aug 2015.
Dingwall, Dawna. “Alexandra Jamieson: I’m not vegan anymore.” The Current Review: CBC Radio. 15
May 2013. Web. 10 Oct 2013.
“Don’t Blame Cows for Climate Change.” U of California Davis News. 7 Dec 2009. Web. 30 Jan 2014.
Douillard, John. The Three Season Diet: Eat the Way Nature Intended. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2000.
—–. Interviews. 30 Nov 2010 and 5 Oct 2014.
Dubay, Eric. “Judgmental Vegan Nazis.” Atlantean Conspiracy. 8 Dec 2011. Web. 2 Sept 2013.
DuBroff, Robert, and Michel de Lorgeril. “Cholesterol confusion and statin controversy.” World Journal
Cardio 7.7 (2015): 404–09.
Dyall, Simon. “Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and the brain: a review of the independent and shared
effects of EPA, DPA, and DHA.” Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 7 (2015): 52.
Edge, W.D. “Wildlife of Agriculture, Pastures, and Mixed Environs.” D.H. Johnson and T.A. O’Neill, eds.
Wildlife-Habitat Relationships in Oregon and Washington. Oregon State Press, 2000, pp. 342-60.
Edison, R.J., et al. “Adverse birth outcome among mothers with low serum cholesterol.” Pediatrics 120.4
Elango, R., et al. “Evidence Protein Requirements Have Been Significantly Underestimated.” Current
Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 13.1 (2010): 52-57.
Elmadfa, I., and I. Singer. “Vitamin B-12 and homocysteine status among vegetarians: global perspective.”
Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89 (2009): 1693S–98S.
Emond, J.A., et al. “Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence Associated with Carbohydrate Intake and Tissue
Expression of IGF-1 Receptor.” Cancer Epidem Biomarkers Prev 23.7 (2014): 1273-79.
Enig, Mary, PhD. Know Your Fats: The Complete Primer for Understanding the Nutrition of Fats, Oils and
Cholesterol. Bethesda, MD: Bethesda Press, 2000.
EPIC-Oxford Study. Refer to Appleby, P., et al; Crowe, F., et al; Gilsing, A., et al; Key, T.J., et al; Romieu,
Isabelle, et al.
Estruch, Ramón, MD, et al. “Primary Prevention of Cardio Disease with a Mediterranean Diet.” New
England Journal of Medicine 368 (2013): 1279-90.
Etzioni, A., et al. “Systemic carnitine deficiency exacerbated by a strict vegetarian diet.” Arch of Disease in
Childhood 59 (1984): 177-79.
Fallon, Sally, and Mary Enig, PhD. Nourishing Traditions. Washington DC: New Trends, 2001, pp. 12, 26.
Feng, R., et al. “High carb intake from starchy foods is positively associated with metabolic disorders.”
Scientific Reports 5 (2015): 16919.
Fernandez, M.L. “Dietary cholesterol provided by eggs and plasma lipoproteins in healthy populations.”
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 9.1 (2006): 8-12.
Ferrieres, Jean. “French paradox: lessons for other countries.” Heart 90.1 (2004): 107-11.
Finn, Kate. “Finding balance between the extremes of denial and indulgence.” Beyond Vegetarianism
2003. Web. 14 Sept 2014.
Franz, M.J. “Carbohydrates and diabetes: Is the source or the amount of more importance?” Current
Diabetes Report 2 (2012): 177-86.
Fraser, G.E. “Vegetarian Diets: What do we know of their effect on common chronic diseases.” Am Journal
of Clinical Nutrition 89.5 (2009): S1607-12.
—–. Diet, Life Expectancy, and Chronic Disease: Studies of Seventh-Day Adventists and Other Vegetarians.
Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 231-39.
—–, et al. “A possible protective effect of nut consumption on risk of coronary heart disease: Adventist
Health Study.” Archives of Internal Medicine 152 (1992): 1416-24.
Fuhrman, Joel, MD. “Leaders of the Vegan Movement Develop Parkinson’s: Case Studies.” Drfuhrman.
n.d. Web. 9 June 2014.
Fulgoni, Victor. “Current protein intake in America; analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination
Survey, 2003-2004.” Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87.5 (2008): 15545-75.
Gaull, G.E. “Taurine in pediatric nutrition: review and update.” Pediatrics 83.3 (1989): 433-42
Geleijnse, J.M., et al. “Dietary intake of vitamin K-2 reduces the risk of cardiac events and aortic athero-
sclerosis: The Rotterdam Study.” Journal of Nutition 134 (2004): 3100-105.
Gilani, G.S., et al. “Effects of antinutritional factors on protein digestibility and amino acid availability in
foods.” Journal of AOAC International 88.3 (2005): 967-87.
Gilsing, Anne, et al. “Serum concentrations of B12 and folate in British male omnivores, vegetarians, and
vegans: the EPIC-Oxford cohort study.” Eur J of Clinical Nutrition 64.9 (2010): 933-39.
Goldin, B.R., et al. “Estrogen excretion patterns and plasma levels in vegetarian and omnivorous women.”
New England Journal of Medicine 307 (1982): 1542-47.
Goodall, Jane. The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behaviour. Harvard University Press, 1986.
Goodman, Gary, et al. “Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial.” J Nat Cancer Inst 96.23 (2004): 1743-50.
Graham, Douglas. The 80/10/10 Diet. Key Largo, FL: FoodnSport Press, 2006.
Guiliano, Mireille. French Women Don’t Get Fat. New York: Vintage Books, 2007.
Gunnars, Kris. “23 Studies on Low-Fat and Low-Carb Diets.” Authority Nutrition: An Evidence-Based
Approach. Nov 2013. Web. 30 Mar 2014.
Haibo, Liu, et al. “Fructose Induces Transketolase Flux to Promote Pancreatic Cancer Growth.” Cancer
Research 70.15 (2010): 6368-76.
Hall, Harriet, MD. “The China Study Revisited: New Analysis of Raw Data Doesn’t Support Vegetarian
Ideology.” Science-Based Medicine. 20 July 2010. Web. 9 Feb 2012.
Haran, Dan. “Why I’m giving up vegetarianism after 8 years.” K5 Technology and Culture. 14 Oct 2003.
Harris, Marvin. Good to Eat: Riddles of Food and Culture. Waveland Press, 1998, p. 29.
Heidelberg Study. Refer to Chang-Claude, J., et al. Conclusion from 21-years of follow-up: “Being a vegan
was associated with a higher mortality risk than being a lacto-ovo vegetarian.”
Henderson, S.T. “High carbohydrate diets and Alzheimer’s.” Medical Hypotheses 62.5 (2004): 689-700.
Herculano-Houzel, Suzana. “What Is So Special About the Human Brain?” TED Talks. June 2013.
Herzog, Hal, PhD. “Why Do Most Vegetarians Go Back To Eating Meat?” Psychology Today. 20 June 2011.
Hipkiss, A.R. “Glycation, aging, and carnosine: Are carnivorous diets beneficial?” Mechanisms of Aging
and Development 126.10 (2005): 1034-39.
—–. “Could carnosine or related structures suppress Alzheimer’s?” Journal of Alz 11.2 (2007): 229-40.
Hu, Frank, et al. “A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and
women.” JAMA 281.15 (1999): 1387-94.
—–, and W. Willett. “Reply to TC Campbell.” Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71.3 (2000): 850-51.
Hu, J., et al. “Glycemic index, glycemic load and cancer risk.” Oncology 24.1 (2013): 245-51.
Huang, T., et al. “Cardiovascular Disease Mortality & Cancer Incidence in Vegetarians: A Meta-Analysis
and Review.” Annals of Nutri and Metab 60.4 (2012): 233-40. Vegans were not studied in this review.
Hudgins, L.C. “Effect of high-carbohydrate feeding on triglyceride and saturated fatty acid synthesis.”
Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Medicine 225.3 (2000): 178-83.
Humane Research Council. Study of Current and Former Vegetarians and Vegans. Dec 2014, p. 7.
Hunt, Janet R. “Bioavailability of iron, zinc, and other trace minerals from vegetarian diets.” Am Journal of
Clinical Nutrition 78.3 (2003): 6335-95.
Ingenbleek, Y., and K. McCully. “Vegetarianism produces subclinical malnutrition, hyperhomocysteinemia
and atherogenesis.” Nutrition 28.2 (2012): 148-53.
Institute of Medicine. “Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids,
Cholesterol, Protein, Amino Acids.” National Academies: Washington DC, 2002. Updated Aug 2015.
James, G.D. “Climate-related morphological variation and physiological adaptations in Homo sapiens.”
Ed. S. Larsen. Companion to Biological Anthropology. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, pp. 153-66.
Jamieson, Alastair. “UN admits flaw in report on meat and climate change.” The Telegraph. 24 Mar 2010.
Web. 15 Jan 2014.
Jamieson, Alexandra. “I’m Not Vegan Anymore.” AlexandraJamieson. 27 Feb 2013. Web. 5 Mar 2013.
Jeppesen, J., et al. “Effects of low-fat, high-carb diets on risk factors for ischemic heart disease in post
menopausal women.” Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65.4 (1997): 1027-33.
Jones, Peter J.H. “Dietary Cholesterol Feeding Suppresses Human Cholesterol Synthesis.” Arteriosclerosis,
Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 16 (1996): 1222-28.
—–. “Dietary cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients: a review of the Harvard Egg
Study and other data.” Int Journal Clinical Pract Suppl 163.1-8 (2009): 28-36.
Josefsen, D. “High carb diet implicated in pancreatic cancer.” British Medical Journal 325 (2002): 566.
Keith, Lierre. The Vegetarian Myth: Food, Justice, and Sustainability. Crescent City, CA: Flashpoint, 2009.
Kelder, Peter. The Eye of Revelation: The Ancient Tibetan Rites of Rejuvenation. Ed. J.W. Watt, 1946.
Bradenton, FL: Booklocker, 2008.
Kent, George, PhD. “Skewed Soy Studies.” Pediatrics. Letters. 14 June 2012. Web. 30 Mar 2014.
Kerasote, Ted. Bloodties: Nature, Culture, and the Hunt. New York: Random House, 1993, pp. 232-55.
Key, T.J., et al. “Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians.” Am J Clinical Nutrition70.3S (1999): 516-24.
Kies, Constance. “Effect of Dietary Fat and Fiber on Calcium Bioavailability.” ACS Symposium Series 275
Kim, K.J., et al. “ATF3 Mediates Anti-Cancer Activity of Trans-10, cis-12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Human
Colon Cancer Cells.” Biomolecules and Therapeutics 23.2 (2015): 134-40.
King, Barbara. “Do Vegetarians and Vegans Think They Are Better Than Everyone Else?” Culture. NPR. org.
30 Aug 2012. Web. 10 Jan 2013.
Klaper, Michael, MD, and John Mollenhauer. “Failure to Thrive: Speculations on the Nutritional Ade-
quacy of 100% Plant-Based Diets.” Nutrientrich. 12 Nov 2012. Web. 3 Mar 2013.
Knopp, Robert, and Barbara Retzlaff. “Saturated fat prevents coronary artery disease? An American
paradox.” Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80.5 (2004): 1102-03.
Koba, K., and T. Yanagita. “Health benefits of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).” Obesity Research Clinical
Practice 8.6 ( 2014): 525-32.
Kornsteiner, M., et al. “Very low n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status in Austrian vegetarians
and vegans.” Annals of Nutrition Metabolism 52.1 (2008): 37-47.
Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M., et al. “Correlation of carnitine levels to methionine and lysine intake.”
Physiological Research 49.3 (2000): 399-402.
—–, et al. “Iodine defiency in vegetarians and vegans.” Annals of Nutrition & Metab 47.5 (2003): 183-85.
Kruuk, Hans. Hunter and Hunted: Relationships Between Carnivores and People. Cambridge U Press, 2002.
Laidlaw, S.A., et al. “Plasma and urine taurine levels in vegans.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
47.4 (1988): 660-63.
Le Billon, Karen. French Kids Eat Everything. New York: HarperCollins, 2012.
Lee, K.W., et al. “Role of CLA in the Prevention of Cancer.” Crit Rev Food Sci Nutrition 45.2 (2005): 135-44.
Liener, I.E. “Implications of antinutritional components in soybean foods.” Critical Reviews in Food
Science and Nutrition 34.1 (1994): 31-67.
Lin, Y., et al. “Variability of the conversion of beta-carotene to vitamin A in women measured using a
double-tracer study design.” Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71.6 (2000): 1545-54.
Linebaugh, Kourtney. “A Lesson From the Dalai Lama on Meat Eating.” Samvid Beauty 12 Feb 2013. Web.
13 Mar 2014.
Liu, Simin, et al. “Prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake and risk of coronary
heart disease in US women.” Am Journal Clinical Nutrition 71.6 (2000): 1455-61.
Lordkipanidze, David, et al. “A Complete Skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the Evolutionary Biology of
Early Homo.” Science 342 (2013): 326-31.
Lorgeril, Michel de, et al. “Mediterranean diet and the French paradox.” Cardiovascular Research 54.3
Lustig, Robert, MD. “Sugar: The Bitter Truth.” University of California TV. 27 July 2009. Web. 1 Feb 2013.
—–. Fat Chance: Beating the Odds Against Sugar, Processed Food, Obesity and Disease. New York: Hudson
Street Press, 2012.
Martinez-Lapiscina, E., et al. “Mediterranean diet improves cognition: PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomised
trial.” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 13 May 2013. Web. 2 Jul 2013.
Master-Hunter, T., and D.L. Heiman. “Amenorrhea” Am Family Physician 73.8 (2006): 1374-82.
Mathieson, I., et al. “Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians.” Nature 528:7583
McCarty, Mark F. “Failure to Thrive as a Vegan—Could Supplemental Carninutrients Help?” Catalytic
Longevity. n.d. Web. 25 Feb 2014.
McEvoy C.T., et al. “Vegetarian diets, low-meat diets and health: a review.” Public Health Nutri 15
McNamara, D.J. “The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg.” Nutrients 7.10 (2015): 8716-22.
Mehedint, M.G., et al. “Choline deficiency in the fetal brain.” FASEB Journal 22 (2008): 1122.
Messina, Ginny, RD. “How the Health Argument Fails Veganism.” theveganrd. 30 Nov 2010. Web. 19 Oct
Michalak, Johannes, et al. “Vegetarian diet and mental disorders: results from representative community
survey.” Int Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 9:67 (2012): Web. 9 Feb 2014.
Michaud, D.S., et al. “Dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate, sugar, and colorectal cancer risk in men and
women.” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 14.1 (2005): 138–47.
Millard, Elizabeth, ed. “ Want to eat healthier? Add more animal fat, butter, eggs and raw milk to your
diet: Comments.” Simple, Good and Tasty. 11 Oct 2009. Web. 8 Mar 2014.
Miller, Donald J., MD. “Enjoy Saturated Fats, They’re Good for You!” 29th Annual Meeting of the Doctors
for Disaster Preparedness. Lew Rockwell. 2014. Web. 30 Mar 2014.
Minger, Denise. Death by Food Pyramid: How Shoddy Science, Sketchy Politics and Shady Special Interests
Have Ruined Our Health. Malibu: Primal Blueprint, 2013.
—–. “The China Study: Fact or Fallacy?” Raw Foods SOS. 7 July 2010. Web. 13 Feb 2012.
Mitani, J.C., and D.P. Watts. “Why do chimpanzees hunt and share meat?” Animal Behaviour 61.5
Moore, E., et al. “Cognitive impairment and vitamin B12: A review.” Intl Psychogeria 24.4 (2012): 541-56.
Mozaffarian, D., et al. “Dietary fats, carbohydrate, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis in post
menopausal women.” Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80 (2004): 1175-84.
Murphy S.P., and L.H. Allen. “Nutritional Importance of Animal Sourced Foods.” Journal of Nutrition 133S
Muti, Paola, et al. “Fasting Glucose is a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer, A Prospective Study.” Cancer Epide-
miology, Biomarkers and Prevention 11 (2002): 1361.
Nagle, C.M., et al. “Glycemic index, glycemic load, and endometrial cancer risk.” European J Nutrition 52.2
Nass, R.D., et al. “Fate of Polynesian Rats in Hawaiian Sugar Cane Fields During Harvest.” Journal of Wild-
life Management 35 (1971): 353-56.
Nicholson, John. The Meat Fix: How a Lifetime of Healthy Living Nearly Killed Me. London: Biteback, 2012.
Nierenberg, D.W., et al. “Effects of 4 yrs of oral supplementation with beta-carotene on serum concentra-
tions of retinol.” Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66.2 (1997): 315-19.
Nimptsch, K., et al. “Dietary vitamin K intake in relation to cancer incidence and mortality: EPIC-
Heidelberg.” Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91 (2010): 1348-58.
Nordmann, A.J., et al. “Effects of low-carb vs. low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors:
a meta-analysis.” Archive of Internal Medicine 166.3 (2006): 285-93.
Norris, Jack, RD. “Disease Rates of Vegetarians and Vegans.” VeganHealth. Dec 2013. Web. 29 Jan 2014.
—–. “Choline.” VeganHealth. Apr 2013. Web. 20 Dec 2013.
Obersby, D., et al. “Plasma total homocysteine status of vegetarians compared with omnivores: a system-
atic review.” British Journal of Nutrition 109.5 (2013): 785-94.
Orlich, M.J., et al. “Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2.” JAMA Internal
Med 173.13 (2013): 1230-38. A total of 73,308 Adventists participated.
Ornish, Dean, et al. “Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial.”
Lancet 336.8708 (1990): 129–33.
Paddon-Jones, D., and B. Rasmussen. “Dietary Protein Recommendations and prevention of sarcopenia.”
Current Opinion Clinical Nutr Metab Care 12.1 (2009): 86-90.
Paradis, Sébastien, et al. “Emotional and instrumental aggressiveness and body weight loss.” Europe’s
Journal of Psychology 3.4 (2007) n.p. Web. 18 Feb 2014.
Parks, Elizabeth, and Marc Hellerstein. “Carbohydrate-induced hypertriacylglycerolemia: historical per-
spective and review of biological mechanisms.” Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 71.2 (2000): 412-33.
—–, et al. “Effects of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet on VLDL-trigylceride clearance.” Journal of Clinical
Investigation 104.8 (1999): 1087-96.
Pasantes-Morales, H., et al. “Taurine enhances proliferation, promotes neuronal specification of murine
and human neural stem/progenitor cells. Adv Exp Med Biology 803 (2015): 457-72.
Pedersen, A.B., et al. “Menstrual differences due to vegetarian and nonvegetarian diets.” Am Journal
Clinical Nutrition 53.4 (1991): 879-85.
Pencharz, Paul, et al. “Recent developments in understanding protein needs—How much and what kind
should we eat?” Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism 41.5 (2016): 577-80.
Perlmutter, David, MD. The Surprising Truth about Wheat, Carbs, and Sugar—Your Brain’s Silent Killers.”
New York: Little, Brown, 2013.
Perry, Susan. “Study on vegetarianism: interesting but not definitive.” Minn Post. 6 June 2013.
Petrova, Nadia. “The biggest mistakes people make on a vegan diet.” Nature Insider. 20 Nov 2012. Web.
5 Apr 2013.
Poliquin, C. “Vegetarians Beware: Nutrient Deficiencies.” Poliquin Group. 29 Mar 2012. Web. 2 Dec 2013.
Pollard, E., and T. Relton. “Study of Small Mammals in Cultivated Fields.” J of Appl Eco 7 (1970): 549-57.
Pope, Sarah. “Determining the Best Traditional Diet for You.” The Healthy Home Economist. 7 June 2012.
Price, Weston, DDS. Nutrition and Physical Degeneration: A Comparison of Primitive and Modern Diets
and Their Effects. 1939. Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation, 2009, p. 282.
Pullen, Kate. “Dangers of Veganism.” vegetarian.lovetoknow. 2012. Web. 5 May 2012.
Rae, Caroline, et al. “Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-
blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.” Proc Biol Science 270: 1529 (2003): 2147–50.
Ravnskov, U. “The questionable role of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiovascular dis-
ease.” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 51.6 (1998): 443-60.
Ray, Joel , and Sissi Cao, et al. “J-shapedness: an often missed, often miscalculated relation: the example
of weight and mortality.” Journal of Epidemiology and Comm Health. 28 Mar 2014. Web. 19 May 2014.
Rheaume-Bleue, Kate. Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox. Ontario: John Wiley and Sons, 2012.
Ripple, William, et al. “Status and Ecological Effects of the World’s Largest Carnivores.” Science 343
(2014): n.p. Web. 21 Dec 2014.
Roberts, R., et al. “Relative intake of macronutrients impacts risk of mild cognitive impairment or demen-
tia.” J Alzheimers Disease 32.2 (2012): 329-39.
Robinson, Jo. Why Grass-fed is Best. Vashon, WA: Island Press, 2000.
Romieu, Isabelle, et al. “Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and breast cancer risk in the EPIC
Study.” Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 96.2 (2012): 345-55.
—–, et al. “Carbohydrates and the Risk of Breast Cancer among Mexican Women.” Cancer Epidemiol
Biomarkers 13.8 (2004): 1283-89. Carbohydrate intake was positively associated with breast cancer
risk. The strongest associations were observed for sucrose and fructose.
Rosedale, Ron. “Cholesterol Not the Cause of Heart Disease.” Loveforlife. 28 Oct 2007. Web. 1 Aug 2014.
Sachdeva, Amit, MD, et al. “Lipid levels in patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease: An analysis
of 136,905 hospitalizations.” American Heart Journal 157.1 (2009): 111-17.
Sarter, B., et al. “Blood DHA and EPA in vegans: Associations with age and gender and effects of an algal-
derived omega-3 supplement.” Clinical Nutrition 13 Mar 2014. Web. 1 May 2014.
Schmid, Ron. Native Nutrition: Eating According to Ancestral Wisdom. Healing Arts Press, 1994.
Schreurs, Bernard, PhD. “The Effects of Cholesterol on Learning and Memory.” Neuroscience and
Biobehavioral Reviews 34.8 (2010): 1366-79.
Schwartz, Robert S., et al. “Increased Coronary Artery Plaque Volume Among Male Marathon Runners.”
Journal of the Missouri Med Assoc 111.2 (2014): 85-90.
Scott, Jenna. “From Vegan to Paleo” with Comments. Robb Wolf. 15 Oct 2012. Web. 8 Jan 2013.
Scruton, Roger. “Conscientious Carnivore.” Food for Thought: The Debate Over Eating Meat. Ed. Steve
Sapontzis. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2004, pp. 81-91.
Sears, William, Dr. “Soy Formula.” Ask Dr. Sears. 2014. Web. 30 Nov 2014.
Seneff, S., et al. “Nutrition and Alzheimer’s disease: the detrimental role of a high carbohydrate diet.”
European Journal of Internal Medicine 22.2 (2011): 134-40.
Seventh-Day Adventist Studies. Refer to Fraser, G.E., et al; Key, T.J., et al; Orlich, M.J., et al.
Shao, L., et al. “L-carnosine reduces telomere damage and shortening rate in cultured normal fibroblasts.”
Biochem and Biophys Research Comm 324 (2004): 931-36.
Shuster, L., et al. “Premature menopause: long-term health consequences.” Maturitas 65.2 (2010): 161.
Siepmann, T., et al. “Hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction associated with soy product consumption.”
Nutrition 27.7-8 (2011): 859-62.
Sieri, S., et al. “Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of breast cancer in an Italian prospective
cohort study.” Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86.4 (2007): 1160-66.
—–, and V. Krogh. “Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and cancer: An overview of the literature.”
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardio Diseases 27.1 (2017): 18-31. “High dietary glycemic load is associated
with increased risk of breast and endometrial cancer.”
Sigurdsson, Axel, MD. “High carbohydrate Intake Worse that High Fat for Blood Lipids. Doc’s Opinion 1
Aug 2016. Web 20 Oct 2016.
Simopoulos, A.P. “The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and
other chronic diseases.” Experimental Bio & Med 233.6 (2008): 674-88.
Sircus, Mark. “Cancer and Sugar: Strategy for Selective Starvation of Cancer.” GreenMedInfo. 27 Feb
2013. Web. 5 Apr 2013.
Siri-Tarino, Patty, et al. “Meta-analysis of cohort studies evaluating association of saturated fat with
cardiovascular disease.” Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91.3 (2010): 535-46.
Sofi, F., et al. “Accruing evidence on benefits of adherence to the Mediterranean diet on health: an
updated systematic review.” Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 92.5 (2010): 1189-96.
Southan, Rhys. “Interviews With Ex-Vegans.” Let Them Eat Meat. 2010-2013. Web. Apr/May 2013.
Spangenburg, Espen, et al. “Metabolic Dysfunction Under Reduced Estrogen Levels.” Exercise and Sport
Sciences Reviews 40.4 (2012): 195-203.
Spencer, Colin. Vegetarianism, A History. New York: Eight Walls Four Windows, 2000.
Stanford, Craig B. Chimpanzee and Red Colobus: The Ecology of Predator and Prey. Harvard U Press, 1998.
—–. The Hunting Apes: Meat-eating & the Origins of Human Behavior. Princeton U Press, 1999.
—–, et al. “Risk-prone hunting by chimpanzees increases during periods of high diet quality.” Behavioral
Ecology and Sociobiology 61 (2007): 1771-79.
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur. “Adventures in Diet: Eskimos Prove an All Meat Diet Provides Excellent Health.”
Harper’s. Nov 1935. Web. 9 Mar 2014.
Stephens, Francis B., et al. “Vegetarians have a reduced skeletal muscle carnitine transport capacity..” Am
Journal of Clinical Nutrition 94.3 (2011): 938-44.
Stover, P.J. “Influence of human genetic variation on nutritional requirements.” Am Journal of Clinical
Nutrition 83.2 (2006): 436S-442S.
Stuebe, Alison, MD. “The Risks of Not Breastfeeding.” Reviews in Obst and Gynec 2.4 (2009): 222–31.
Suzanne. “Vegan life is not bloodless: Comments.” fleshisgrass. 7 Aug 2010. Web. 3 Apr 2015.
Sylvie, S.L., et al. “Fish Consumption and Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis.” Am J of Medicine
127.9 (2014) 848-57.
Taubes, Gary. “Is Sugar Toxic?” The New York Times. 13 Apr 2011. Web. 3 Nov 2012. This is the source of
Dr. Lewis Cantley’s quote, “Sugar scares me.”
—–. and Cristin Kearns Couzens. “Big Sugar’s Sweet Little Lies.” Mother Jones. Nov/Dec 2012.
Tedders, S.H., et al. “Low cholesterol is associated with depression among US household population.”
Journal of Affective Disorders 135 (2011): 115-21.
Terrain, Mary Vance. “The Dark Side of Soy.” Utne Reader. July/Aug 2007. Web. 23 Aug 2011.
Tew, T.E., and D.W. Macdonald. “The Effects of Harvest on Arable Wood Mice.” Biological Conservation
65 (1993): 279-83.
—–, et al. “Herbicide Application Affects Microhabitat Use by Arable Wood Mice.” Journal of Applied
Ecology 29 (1992): 352-59.
Thomas, E.L., et al. “Excess body fat in obese and normal-weight subjects.” Nutrition Research Reviews
25.1 (2012): 150-61. Explores disease risk factors in lean individuals with hidden abdominal fat.
“Thoughts on Raw Vegan, 80/10/10, Paleo Diets.” Open Mind Required. 28 June 2009. Web. 5 Nov 2013.
Tieman, Jill, ND. “Your Brain on Fake Food.” The Real Food Forager. 7 Apr 2011. Web. 23 Jan 2014.
Triche, Tim, Jr. “Protein: Cordain vs. Campbell: Comments.” Crossfit. 13 Dec 2006. Web. 2 Dec 2012.
Turner, L. “A meta-analysis of fat intake, reproduction, and breast cancer risk: evolutionary perspective.”
Am Journal of Human Biology 23.5 (2011): 601-08.
“Two Brave Men Who Ate Nothing but Meat for an Entire Year.” Inhuman Experiment. 10 Sept 2009. Web.
8 Nov 2013.
Union of Concerned Scientists. “Heads They Win, Tails We Lose: How Corporations Corrupt Science at the
Public’s Expense.” Cambridge: UCS Publications, 2012.
United States. Depts. of Agriculture and Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines. Washington DC:
GPO, 2010, p. 45. Revised every five years. The 2015 Guidelines finally call for less sugar.
—–. Dept. of Health and Human Services. “New Report on Soy Finds Limited Evidence for Health Out-
comes.” 24 Aug 2005. Web. 28 Oct 2013.
Valls-Pedret, C., et al. “Mediterranean Diet and Age-Related Cognitive Decline, A Randomized Clinical
Trial.” JAMA Intern Med 175.7 (2015): 1094-103.
Vance, Mary. “Deep Nutrition.” Mary Vance NC. 22 June 2012. Web. 25 Aug 2012.
Volk, B.M., et al. “Effects of step-wise increases in dietary carbohydrate on circulating saturated fatty
acids and palmitoleic acid in adults with metabolic syndrome.” PLOS ONE 9.11 (2014): e113605.
Vudhivai, N., et al. “Vitamin B1, B2, B6 status of vegetarians.” J of M Assoc of Thai. 74.10 (1991): 465-70.
Vyver, E., et al. “Eating disorders and menstrual dysfunction in adolescents.” Annals of the New York
Academy of Sciences 64:135 (2011): 253-64.
Weil, Andrew, MD. “Anti-Inflammatory Diet and Pyramid.” DrWeil. Web. 3 Jan 2014.
—–. “Triglycerides too High?” DrWeil. 30 May 2007. Web. 25 Oct 2013.
Welch, Claudia. Balance Your Hormones, Balance Your Life. Cambridge, MA: DaCapo Press, 2011, p. 208.
Wells, A.S., et al. “Alternations in mood after changing to low-fat diet.” Brit J of Nutri 79.1 (1998): 22-30.
White, Courtney. “Pasture cropping: A regenerative solution from down under.” Acres. 21 Feb 2013.
White, Lon. “Association of High Midlife Tofu Consumption with Accelerated Brain Aging.” Third Interna-
tional Soy Symposium. Nov 1999, p. 26. Web. 30 Oct 2013. Refer to Sandbeck, E. re White’s quote.
Willett, Walter C., MD, and Rudolph L. Leibel, MD. “Dietary fat is not a major determinant of body fat.”
Am Journal of Medicine 113.9 (2002): 47-59.
—–. Eat, Drink and Be Healthy: The Harvard Medical School Guide to Healthy Eating. New York: Free
Press, 2005. Willett cautions us to treat soy isoflavones like “a totally untested new drug.”
Witte, A.V., et al. “Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids improve brain function and structure in older adults.”
Cereb Cortex 24 Jun 2013. Web. 3 Aug. 2013.
Wolfe, Robert R., PhD, and Sharon L. Miller, PhD. “The Recommended Dietary Allowance of Protein: A
Misunderstood Concept.” JAMA 299.24 (2008): 2891-93.
Wylie, Cynthia. “New Studies Validate Age-Delaying Effects of Carnosine.” Life Extension. Dec 2016. Web.
30 Dec 2016.
Xiao, Y., et al. “Creatine for Parkinson’s disease.” Co Database Syst Rev 17 (2014): n.p. Web. 28 Feb 2015.
Xu, Yan-Jun, MD, et al. “The Potential Health Benefits of Taurine.” Exp Clin Cardio 13.2 (2008): 57-65.
Yamano, E., et al. “Effects of chicken essence.” Med Science Monit 19 (2013): 540-47.
Yamori Y., et al. “Taurine as the nutritional factor for the longevity of the Japanese.” Adv Exp Med Biol 643
Yan, Y., et al. “Pregnancy alters choline dynamics.” Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98 (2013): 1459-67.
Yardley, William, and Erik Olsen, “With Powerboat and Forklift, A Sacred Whale Hunt Endures.” New York
Times. 16 Oct 2011. Web. 3 Dec 2013.
Yogananda, Paramahansa. Autobiography of a Yogi. 1946. San Rafael, CA: Self Realization Fellowship,
2007. An account of Gandhi refusing eggs for his dying daughter-in-law appears on page 508.
—–. “Meat Eating Versus Vegetarianism.” Inner Culture. Apr/May 1935. Reprinted in MyBountifulHealth.
2012. Web. 5 Mar 2014.
Yokoyama, Y., et al. “Vegetarian diets and blood pressure: a meta-analysis.” JAMA Internal Med 174.4
Yu, D., et al. “Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and refined carbohydrates are associated with risk of
stroke.” Am Journal Clin Nutrition 104.5 (2016): 1345-51.
Yudkin, John. Pure, White and Deadly: How Sugar Is Killing Us and What We Can Do To Stop It. New York:
Penguin Books, 2012.
Yurko-Mauro, Karin, et al., “Beneficial effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on cognition in age-related
cognitive decline.” Alzheimer’s and Dementia 6.6 (2010): 456-64.
Zeisel, S. “Choline: Needed for normal development of memory.” JACN 19.5 (2000): 528S-31S.
Zhang, L., et al. “Reduced plasma taurine level in Parkinson’s disease.” Int J of Neuroscience. EPub
Health aspects of vegetarian diets. Am J Clin Nutr 27 Dec 2011, 712-738
Joel and Sergine Le Moaligou convicted of causing child’s death, The Guardian 01 Apr 2011