RhoGam Shot: Big Pharma Profit Ploy

by Sarah TheHealthyHomeEconomist

The Rhogam shot is an injected vaccination given to all pregnant women with Rh negative blood.  This article examines the theory and basis for this injection and whether or not the purported benefits of the shot are truly of value as promoted in prenatal examination rooms.

What is The Rh Factor?

It is common knowledge that every person has a blood type identified as either  “O”, “A”, “B”, or “AB”.  In addition to this primary blood type, a person’s blood is either Rh positive or Rh negative.  This is known as the Rh factor.

The Rh factor refers to a protein that may or may not be found on the surface of an individual’s red blood cells.   A person who has this protein present in her blood is Rh positive and a person who does not is Rh negative.

A person’s Rh factor is an inherited condition with Rh positive being the dominant gene.

Rh Factor and Pregnancy

When a woman who is Rh negative is pregnant, there is a slim chance of complications if the fetus she is carrying is Rh positive.

This small risk arises if there is any mixing of blood between the mother and the fetus.  Under normal circumstances, this never occurs, but in the event of a car accident or trauma to the mother’s belly, some mixing of blood is possible.   Mixing may also occur if there is a miscarriage, amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling (CVS), or birth interventions during the labor/birth process.

In the unlikely event mixing occurs, the Mother’s Rh negative blood would encounter the Rh protein from her Rh positive child’s blood and develop antibodies against it.   This process is called “sensitization”.

No harm can come to the baby the first time mixing occurs.   If any mixing of blood happens for the second time, however, some of these antibodies from the Mother’s blood could get into the bloodstream of the fetus and attack the red blood cells causing Rh Disease which puts the child at risk for stillbirth.   Babies born with severe Rh Disease require intensive treatment to survive.

RhoGam Shot and the Rh Factor

RhoGam is a vaccine like globulin shot that was developed in the late 1960s to keep a Rh negative woman from becoming sensitized to the Rh positive blood of her fetus in the unlikely event blood mixing occurs.  Rhogam works very much like an immunization.   It puts a small amount of Rh antibody into the mother’s blood to effectively fool it into thinking the foreign Rh protein has been eliminated.

The Rhogam shot does work, but only if the immunoglobulin is administered within 72 hours of the trauma that caused the blood mixing in the first place.

How to know during a 40 week gestation when/if any blood mixing occurred unless there is a direct event like a car wreck or a fall?

There isn’t any way to tell, which is why the completely arbitrary RhoGam shot at 28 weeks gestation (and again at 36 weeks with some doctors) makes no sense at all.

What also makes no sense is that doctors recommend that all Rh negative women get RhoGam during pregnancy even if the father is also Rh negative!   There is absolutely no need for Rh negative women with Rh negative partners to ever get RhoGam as the baby will always also be Rh negative and the risk from Rh antibodies is zero!

RhoGam Shot Dangers

What doctors never seem to admit or even talk about is the very real risk of putting RhoGam Rh antibodies into the mother’s bloodstream during gestation.  The Rh antibodies from the RhoGam shot hang around in the mother’s bloodstream for up to 12 weeks following the shot.    As a result, if blood mixing occurs during that period of time (as in a car wreck or other trauma), it is possible for some of the Rhogam antibodies to find their way into the fetus’ bloodstream and attack them causing the very Rh Disease in the fetus that the shot is supposed to prevent!

There is also the possibility of side effects from the RhoGam shot. Swelling, inflammation, hives and even anaphylactic shock are not out of the question. More concerning is that the Rh antibodies have the potential to negatively affect the immune response of either the mother or baby to other foreign substances that enter the bloodstream.

As with any donated blood product, the RhoGam shot also carries with it the possibility of blood born disease.   Each RhoGam shot contains the antibodies of several different donors pooled together which increases the liklihood of viruses slipping through undetected to the RhoGam recipient.   It is virtually impossible to test and screen out all the various viruses that could be present in the donor blood!

RhoGam Shot and Thimerosal

The most troubling aspect of Rhogam could very well be the ingredients. Like many vaccines, the RhoGam shot used to contain thimerosal, an organomercury compound known to produce neurological damage, but this was supposedly phased out by 2001.

Studies performed by Health Advocacy in the Public Interest (HAPI) in 2004 found that despite vaccine manufacturers’ claims that thimerosal was no longer being used, in fact this 50% mercury containing compound was still routinely included in the manufacturing process with the thimerosal being “filtered out” of the final product.   The problem is that the filtering process doesn’t work very well;   mercury binds to the antigenic proteins and as such, cannot be 100% removed

All vaccine vials tested by HAPI that were labeled “mercury free” did, in fact, contain this neurotoxin.   All the vials also contained aluminum which enhances the toxicity of the mercury causing rapid death of brain neurons.

Is the Rhogam shot now truly mercury or even aluminum free?  Most likely not.  Product insert labels turn out not to be all that reliable.

RhoGam Shot During Pregnancy Is Ineffective

It used to be that Rhogam was only given after an Rh positive child was born  (a newborn can easily be typed via cord blood), if there was some birth intervention that made blood mixing a strong possibility, or if an accident or trauma occurred during pregnancy.

However, it seems that the prenatal RhoGam shots have become routine and arbitrary for all Rh negative women regardless of their partner’s Rh status and despite any pre-birth trauma or birth intervention.

Why the change?   It seems the most obvious reason is to pad the pockets of Ortho Clinical Diagnostics (owned by Johnson and Johnson) as there is no additional protection to fetuses from such measures.

Routine RhoGam during pregnancy to all Rh negative mothers is simply a Big Pharma ploy to increase profits, not to protect babies from Rh Disease.

What To Do if You are Pregnant and Rh Negative?

If you are pregnant and Rh negative, the first question to consider is whether or not the father of your child is also Rh negative.  If he is, then there is absolutely no need for the RhoGam shot.  Period.  There is no risk to your baby whatsoever.

If a doctor tries to convince you otherwise, he/she is WRONG.   In fact, getting a RhoGam shot during pregnancy when both you and your partner are Rh negative endangers the life and health of your child!

How?  Because getting the RhoGam shot introduces Rh antibodies into your bloodstream which could get into your baby’s blood should a car wreck or other trauma occur.  This could give your baby Rh Disease where it would be impossible otherwise without the shot.

If you are pregnant and Rh negative with a Rh positive partner, you should also decline a routine RhoGam shot during pregnancy because there is NO PROTECTION to the current baby you are carrying from the RhoGam shot while you are still pregnant. It is an arbitrary and useless shot during gestation UNLESS you are in a car wreck or have some other trauma happen to your belly.

The final question is whether or not you should have the RhoGam shot after the birth of your child. If you are Rh negative with an Rh negative father, the answer is once again a resounding “NO!”

If you are Rh negative with an Rh positive partner, RhoGam after birth might be called for if you were induced, had an epidural, C-section or other birth intervention which would have greatly increased the chances of blood mixing between yourself and your baby.

There is still a chance your baby is Rh negative even if your partner is Rh positive, so always have the baby’s cord blood typed after birth if you are considering Rhogam after an interventionist birth to determine if it is even of any potential value.

However, the likelihood that Rhogam still has neurotoxic preservatives such as thimerosal and/or aluminum despite labeling claims to the contrary make taking the shot under any circumstances a questionable decision.

If you had a natural birth with no induction or intervention of any kind where the placenta was permitted to detach naturally from the uterus, then RhoGam after birth is clearly unnecessary.

Natural Ways to Prevent Blood Mixing Between Mother and Fetus

Drinking Red Raspberry and Nettle Tea throughout pregnancy and especially during the last trimester helps to tone the uterus and keep it strong, reducing the chance of any blood mixing during birth.

In addition, ensuring that no flouridated water or nonorganic tea (which is high in flouride) are consumed during pregnancy is wise as flouride has been shown to interfere with collagen production.    The placenta attaches firmly to the uterus via collagen fibers.

As always, a healthy pregnancy diet is extremely protective in preventing any blood mixing.  My own Rh negative Mother (my Dad is Rh Positive) delivered 7 healthy, Rh positive children with no Rhogam shots by simply eating healthy and having natural births.

Sarah, The Healthy Home Economist

picture credit


Comments (167)

  1. The advice to avoid shot is dangerous. I was not given the shot for a variety of reason, both of my children were impacted as a result. They both spent a significant amount of time in the NICU and it was dicey during my second pregnancy.

    Ridiculous to take the risk with an unborn child.

  2. For those of you that agree with this article, you need to seriously take a Biology class. I’m concerned that so many people want to vilify scientists and doctors for trying to do good.
    First, the shot is not a vaccine, it’s an antibody shot. The antibodies are anti-Rh. Therefore, if you are exposed to the Rh factor and you are Rh-, the antibodies will help to neutralize the Rh before your immune cells make a response to the Rh. Sensitization means that you now produce anti-Rh antibodies that can cross the placenta in future pregnancies and attack your babies blood cells that have the Rh if the baby is Rh+, possibly killing your baby.
    Second, there is a reason that they give the shot if the father is also Rh-. The reason is because you could have been exposed to the Rh factor accidently if you were given a blood transfusion or something like that, it’s a precaution.
    Third, 2 Rh+ parents can have an Rh- child. The Rh+ is dominant, meaning that if you are Rh+ you can have a Rh- gene to pass to a child. 2 Rh- parents cannot have an Rh+ child, however. It’s simple recessive/dominant genetics.
    Fourth, the mother and fetus’ blood do not mix in the placenta. The blood vessels from the fetus and from the mother are very close, however, so that there can be an exchange of nutrients, gases, antibodies and other things that the growing fetus needs. But, during the birthing process, as the placenta tears away from the uterine wall, there can be a slight mixing. If you are Rh- and are exposed at that point to an Rh+, your immune system will react (just like it does to a pathogen) and create antibodies against the Rh, putting future babies possible at risk.
    I encourage all of you to educate yourselves on this before making your decision, read primary articles not just random things you find on the internet.

    • Sarah TheHealthyHomeEconomist March 10, 2015 at 11:51 am

      The article does not claim the Rh shot is a vaccine … it says it is “vaccine like”. And, please cite sources where 2 Rh+ parents actually had an Rh- child. The Rh factor is not akin to the blue vs brown eyesight genetics that you learn about in basic Biology class.

      Also, modern medicine is too obsessed with “precautions” which overmedicate and overtreat far too many people putting them at risk for something worse than the original risk at hand. It is not necessary to have the Rh shot as a “precaution” for the remote chance that the mother might need a blood transfusion. Seriously? I am so glad I did not birth in a hospital.

      • I happen to have a PhD in biology, would love to know your qualifications. Rh+ is dominant, therefore you can have two heterozygous parents (Rh+/Rh-) that can both donate the Rh- to have a baby that is Rh-/Rh- – it’s simple genetics. But that’s not even the point because if the mother is Rh+ she doesn’t have to worry. It’s just scary how much people in this county will base their decisions on knowing so little about the science behind it….
        And I think having your baby possibly die from hemolytic disease of newborn is a pretty big risk where the shot is not.

        • (Cont) also, please read from primary sources (such as The Journal of Immunology or Science) where the research has been vetted, there is reliable data on how this shot has saved lives. I agree with you that we do over-medicated – on pain killers, drugs used for ADHD and things of that sort. But causing fear in people on this drug, vaccines, etc is only going to result in people getting sick and possibly dying, that’s all I’m trying to say…..

        • Sarah TheHealthyHomeEconomist March 12, 2015 at 12:37 pm

          Jennifer, I am not interested in theoretics, I want to know of actual cases (and how many) where 2 Rh+ parents resulted in an Rh- baby. Evidence, not pie in the sky please.

          • Because mothers have been given RhoGAM since the late 1960s, we have forgotten about thousands of babies that were either miscarried or died from hydrops fetalis.

            Fetomaternal hemorrhage (the mixing of baby and mother’s blood) occurs in the vast majority of pregnancies. For Rh negative mothers, the chance of becoming sensitized to the Rh antigen depends on the volume of Rh-positive cells entering the mother’s circulation. There is about a 1.5% to 2% chance of untreated mother becoming sensitized when the baby is born, an additional 7% become sensitized within 6 months of delivery, and another 7% become sensitized during the second pregnancy, giving an overall frequency of a 16% rate of sensitization to the Rh (or D as blood banks call it) antigen for the first 2 pregnancies. If the Rh negative mothers did not have problem with their children, then they were lucky enough to not have a significant amount of Rh positive blood get into their system during delivery.

            You state that there is no danger the first time the “mixing” occurs. This is correct, however, as stated above there is an approximate 8% chance that antibodies will form and attack the second baby. However, once sensitization has occurred, each subsequent pregnancy usually manifests increasing severity, especially between the first and second affected pregnancies, where the chances of the second infant being affected rises to 90%. RhoGAM has literally saved thousands of babies from either being miscarried or having serious complications.

            As far as after birth, a hospital blood bank is required to test the baby for Rh. If the baby is Rh negative, RhoGAM is not given. If the Rh negative mother is absolutely sure that the father is Rh negative, she can forego the RhoGam shot. However, if there is any doubt, then it is better to rule on the saide of safety because 85% of the US population is Rh positive.

            To answer your other question..Jennifer is correct. The D antigen IS simple genetics. It is located on chromosome #1. D negative people have the D antigen deleted at that location. D positive people either have one copy of the D antigen (heterozygous) or two copies of the D antigen (homozygous). You can be D negative by inheriting no D antigen because 1) both of your parents are Rh negative, or 2)one parent is Rh negative and one parent has one copy of the D antigen or 2) both parents are Rh positive, but both have only one copy of the antigen (heterozygous). As a Blood Bank supervisor with 30 years experience in the Blood Bank (and a graduate degree in Clinical Laboratory Science, with a specially in Blood banking), I have seen, literally, hundreds of individuals where both parents are Rh positive and the child is Rh negative.

          • Sarah TheHealthyHomeEconomist March 12, 2015 at 3:49 pm

            Forgotten? Thousands of babies died? Hardly. Just as a simple personal example, my Mom had 7 healthy babies and she is Rh- and my Dad is Rh+. No blue babies in my family nor did I ever hear of ANY before the Rhogam shot and my Dad is a family physician. Just masterful Big Pharma marketing at work here … sell something and get everyone to use it when it is only rarely needed.

          • You forget about all the thousands of babies that died BEFORE RhoGAM came into being. Since the 70s, most women have been protected by RhoGAM. That is why we do not see much hydrops fetalis now.

  3. Iif you think were here cause of one article your mistaken, iv been researching rhogam for 3 yrs now. Standard procedure doesn’t make it right especially if they know they are doing something wrong. The rhogam website says not to give during pregnancy, they made the shot for christ sake an doctors just go against it is that also right? Just cause its been 60 yrs now? Just like the bible, we believe cause were told to but no one considers that its been changed multiple times. Does that mean the word is ture? Cause were told it helps does it mean we put our trust in them? The people who fear us and our potential and what we may become so they poisen our babies and us cause of fear? This goes beyond rhogam you just have to look hard to notice.

  4. Iv had most of my children at kaiser they put the babies blood type on the board before they gave me the shot. I have heard of blood types changing but idk i am feeling like they lied just to give me the shot and i k ow thats a big assumption but they did try and trick me into getting it when i refused

  5. For clarification. We had all 3 of our children’s blood typed by our midwife at the time of their births. Takes just a few moments. Just takes knowledge.

  6. How many of you know your kids blood types? I am asking cause iv been in this conversation for almost 2 years now. I got some home blood tests for my kids and i just found out only one child is positive and i am super pissed cause they have always given me the shot after. So my docs have been lying and now I’m just upset.

  7. I think this should be taken on a case by case basis. I knew someone who kept having miscarriage after miscarriage before the rhogam shot was first being developed and when the shot was available, she received one and was able to carry her first baby to term.

    Also, whenever I’ve received a Rhogam shot I always had to get my blood taken first at the hospital and then wait up to 2 hours while they analyzed my blood and made the shot specifically for me.

    • Sarah TheHealthyHomeEconomist December 9, 2014 at 11:58 am

      That’s much more reasonable than the inject every Rh negative mother that comes through a prenatal office which is what happens now! It’s all about $$

  8. I did a fair amount of research on the RhoGAM shot when I was pregnant with my son. I chose to get it three days after he was born, although I declined it during pregnancy. (My midwife was fine with my decision either way; she provided a lot of my initial information and offered suggestions to reduce the risk of sensitization.) My birth was completely natural, no interventions. A little over two years later, I had a miscarriage, and when I was in the ER I found out I was already sensitized. I have no idea if it happened because of the miscarriage or if I was part of the small percentage of women for which RhoGAM didn’t work, but I do know I will most likely never have more children because I don’t want to risk a high risk pregnancy.

    I personally encourage women to get the shot if their husbands are Rh+ and they want more children (after birth, and if the baby is Rh+ too). Yes, the ingredients are questionable (and yes, you should educate yourself thoroughly about them, as well as other risks, before consenting to the shot), but from everything I’ve read, pregnancy after being sensitized can be a miserable and dangerous affair.

    • I believe the problem was waiting 3 days. The sooner after birth that it’s given, the better the chance of success. Once your body builds up antibodies (which could have happened over those 3 days) the Rhogam is not effective.

  9. Yeah, I was made to get a rhogam injection during pregnancy bc I am a negative with rh negative. N its total nonsense. K, if 7 percent of people or whatever have rh neg blood, obviously drs don’t know that much about it or how often it effects pregnancy. The injection was likely much more harmful than my blood would be to my kid. But thank god he seems to be healthy, though needs a better diet. Id really like to know how they think this would work, bc it makes no sense at all. Also, it is said by ppl that the first pregnancy won’t be effected, so why’d I have to get that, I am not having other pregnancies.

  10. Rhogam is not a vaccine. It is an immunoglobulin. I’m not saying that makes it safer or better, but to label it as a vaccine is incorrect.

  11. Regarding blood mixing – there still seems to be some confusion. The placenta contains blood vessels that the baby’s blood circulate through. Some are very small. The yerus contains blood vessels that the mom’s blood goes through. Under where thelacenta attaches, the inner cell layers that normally cover the mothers blood vessels are rearranged so that the “spiral arteries” pump blood into spaces called “sinuses” where it basically washes against the outer cell layer of attached side of the placenta and oxygen, water, and nutrients “diffuse” across to enter the baby’s blood inside the vessels. The baby’s red blood cells cannot get across this layer of cells. Mixing happens if there is a separation of part of the placenta and some of the placental blood vessels are torn. If pitocin is given during labor or labor is very intense, the uterine pressure can force these fetal blood cells into the mother’s circulation. Tho gam used to just be given after delivery ( a time when we Knew the placenta had seperated and fetal blood might have entered the mother’s circulation). That cut down the sensitization rate from about 2 percent of pregnancies to rh negative moms to 0.5 percent. It seems that in about one in 200 times, there had been some placental injury or partial separation prior to labor. Giving the shot at 28 weeks cut down the chance of sensitization even lower- whether that is worth it to an individual mom is of course up to the patient.

  12. Omg, wake up already, this shot takes something from us and our children, still a class c drug meaning they are still testing on us. You want to have healthy babies?
    Start caring about the blood type of your man and stop mixing blood. And hey sleepy heads, we mix blood the whole pregnancy so explain again why were taking this shot? Cause what by 6 months we haven’t mixed blood yet?. Stop getting mad at us here who realize something is not right and take control of your health and life. If you want to trust the people who purposely spread ebola be my guest but the culling has started and there is no mercy. Do your homework and find a man compatible, even a positive with the recessive gene can father your child. But i bet u love your guy so that wont happen even thought you want a risk free delivery. It is what it is we are targeted and tested on deal with it be wise and dont trust them.

    • ….You are the reason why some people don’t believe in True Health and make fun of i and ignore it… the health realm is not as bad as the political realm, but still you have complete idiocy in comments like this…

    • Cashmere, we all are in title to our own opinion. Before advise is given based on a personal hypothesis, conduct your own double blind study, which take time years in the lab. If you are so sure that the product in senseless, first make sure your are Rh-, have three children without using the product and tell me how that works out for you. If your H/H was low and needed blood products would you expect the blood products or willing to die…So you lost me with the Ebola statement….

  13. Your comment that a mother that has an all natural birth without intervention is not at risk and does not need the Rhogam is FALSE.
    My pregnancy, labor and birth were all natural, calm, zero interventions and I still became sensitized. I should have received the second shot after birth.

    • I agree Marisa. I knew an Amish couple who had 5 wonderful homebirths, without ever having their blood typed. 6th baby had “problems” at birth & is handicapped, 7th baby died within a few hours of being born, 8th & 9th baby were rushed to the hosp right after birth to get blood transfusions, but are okay now. all because they neglected to type their blood to know she was Rh neg. & he was Rh pos. so they could have gotten Rhogam and prevented all the problems! Having homebirths did not stop her from building up antibodies.
      My aunt is also Rh neg. She was in childbearing years before Rhogam. She had the 1st 2 babies (twins) okay, but the 3rd needed a blood transfusion, d/t antibody build up & the 4th didn’t… since he was Rh neg.

  14. THANK YOU for this post! I have made the decision NOT to vaccinate my self or my future children and didnt feel right about Rhogam. Even though I am seeing a midwife and have a doula, they had no alternatives to offer and seemed to only share the benefits of Rhoham. I was scheduled to have it at 28 weeks, but upon arrival to my appointment, I told the birth center I changed my mind. They insisted I reconsidered and to have my partners blood type (never mentioned before!).So, I did more research and was more convinced I made the right decision!

    My quest for knowledge comes from: how did woman survive giving birth 100+ years ago? I want to see the facts and the numbers to why something is needed. If the percentage is very small, I dont see why taking the risk for something.

    I feel like I now have the information to stand up to my midwife and decline the Rhoham, even after birth. . . . Although, I shouldnt feel like I have to explain myself. But I would prefer to give birth at this birth center than a hospital so I feel like I am walking a fine line….I dont want them to turn me away!

    Those darn insurance companies and pharma companies!

    • Melody S. Fisher LM CPM December 10, 2014 at 10:57 am

      Women ,even in the 1950s had devastating effects before rhogam was discovered. Babies died.. lots of babies died.. I was born in the 1950s and knew of women terrified to have more pregnancies if they were RH-.. Everyone has a right to make informed choices. but reading one article and making that choice isnt really an informed choice.. Research the history of RH- pregnancy.. I am not trying to be a fear monger, I believe in informed choice and if my client chooses not to use rhogam, we run titers to make sure she hasnt become sensitized..

      • Sarah TheHealthyHomeEconomist December 12, 2014 at 9:36 am

        My Mom is Rh negative and had 7 healthy Rh positive babies. RhoGam is a moneymaker and nothing more. Helpful in certain situations perhaps, but not as it is currently used and pushed on all Rh neg women.

  15. I had a natural homebirth last year. I was talked into the rhogam shot for both 28 weeks and after delivery even though my midwife is very natural-based… I trusted her advice. Now, I’m wishing I had taken more of an opposition. I even got a blood test done while pregnant from sequenom to find out the blood type of the baby-so that if the baby was negative I could refuse the shot. The baby was positive so I received it and now I wonder if that’s why my immune system was TERRIBLE for the last 10-12 weeks of my pregnancy. I basically had a horrendous sinus infection, cold, and cough for the third trimester and then after I gave birth I came down with a stomach virus. I usually never get sick and I assumed it was because my immune system was weaker due to the fact that I was pregnant but now I question that.

  16. I know that I am late to this discussion but I am kinda scared right now.
    I declined the injection with my son. He is super healthy and had no probs with illness.
    Pregnancy was easy, enjoyable. I was active, glowing and loved every minute of it.
    Problem was my waters broke when he was breach. He hadn’t turned yet and there wasn’t enough room for him to turn by then. So I had an emergency c-section.
    I hadn’t even given a thought about this injection over the years, till now.
    Years 8 later. I have had a miscarriage.
    It was early trimester. I had only just found out that I was pregnant. But I knew something was up because I felt cramps since the moment of conception and it lasted for weeks. The pain only stopped after I stopped bleeding.
    Now I am blaming myself. It must be my body. Rejecting what I have wanted for so long.
    Now the thought of that dreadful injection that I hated the thought of so much is in my head.
    If I was offered it before I was pregnant I probably would have had it but it is something that only administered when pregnant and I didn’t want the health risks involved anywhere around my precious child.
    How can I test if I have been sensitized?

    • You realize that miscarriages happen to people all the time, right? Rh-neg and Rh-pos alike. A large percentage of woman have miscarriages in the first trimester before they even know they’re pregnant, it’s really common and probably has nothing to do with the shot. Don’t be afraid, fear is a low vibration that will cause more damage in your life than good. And if your body rejects a fetus, maybe it’s for a reason that is hard for simple humans to grasp. There is a huge cosmic universe of things happening that we can barely grasp and all’s we see is the right here in front of us and take it all to heart, when really it’s not a personal jab from God or the universe, sometimes things are just happenings that are blessings hard to see. If you had had the shot and had a miscarriage, then what, you would blame the shot. It’s all hindsight bias of an isolated incident. As the scientific fact states, your blood has to mix with the fetus’s blood in order to cause the miscarriage. If nothing traumatic happened it’s highly unlikely that that is what caused it, therefore it was just a happening. So the shot regardless would have done squat.
      Sorry you’re upset about this, live in love and gratitude instead of fear and regret. You’ll be much better off.

  17. Hi all as you guessed it.. I too am rh- and will be refusing the rhogam and tdap vaccine at my 28 week appointment which is June 12, could anyone help me on how to approach this I have a few key points for my refusal written down should I bring that with me? Also I told my family practicioner at my 24 week appoint that we will not be vaccinating our son and was given the reasons why I should vaccinate much to my decision already being made up. I’m hoping this won’t cause a problem as I’m not looking to find a new provider and the midwives in my area do not accept insurance!

    Much love,

    • You don’t NEED to give any reasons. Just say no, and if pressed keep repeating variations of “No”, “I do not consent”, “No thank you”. It is absolutely NONE of their business about WHY you are refusing. ALL Drs jobs are to INFORM you and arm you with knowledge to make your own decisions. That is why they give an “opinion” and medical “advice”.
      If the Dr is relentless even with “No” variations, tell them you’d be happy to accept and review any and all written documents they’d like to give you but that your decision is still your own and you do not need to provide them with any reasoning or justifications.

      • Natasha,

        How did you make out refusing all shots? I am 28 weeks pregnant, and I was told to schedule my rhegam appointment. Still deciding…
        I appreciate Your response,


  18. I too appreciate this article, not only for a refreshing opinion, but for going boldly against the embarrassing American trend of trusting all, “authority figures,” without researching ourselves. It’s painful to see most of this country content to stare at soap operas and sports instead of educating themselves, then trusting in the arm of flesh to make decisions for our health. We have been brainwashed in our culture, into inherently trusting medical authorities based on degrees and letters. My grandfather was a brain surgeon, my brother in-law is an eye surgeon, my brother is a med student. They have all agreed that very little attention is paid to alternatives to drugs including preventative health measures like nutrition for any situation where there is a threat. They spend much of their classroom time memorizing drugs labels. Foolishly, we trust that a multi-billion dollar industry who writes text books for medical students, cares about our lives or health. Doctors are often well-meaning, but they are bought and paid for by one of the world’s leading cash industries who will go over and around policy in order to make money. We have, almost 5, children and three were severely affected by vaccines and/or immunizations at an early age. I dealt with six years of health problems from over medication of symptoms until I realized we were on a slippery slope. I have a healthy respect for, “certain,” elements of modern medical technology; they saved my son’s life when he was born with a severe birth defect, but they almost killed him years later when trying to resolve other health issues using drugs. We have been healthiest in our lives, avoiding modern medicine for all but mechanical injuries and serious infections.

    Beware of the trend to label those who are trying to find more natural methods, “quacks.” I would rather be a quacking duck though, than a baa-ing sheeple following the trends of the latest bell curve.

    • Laura-

      If you were to have one more baby, You would not get rhogam nor vaccinate him/her, would you?

      I appreciate your response,


  19. I sincerely hope that very few women make medical choices based on this article. Has the author spoken with anyone old enough to remember what it was like before this shot was available? My grandmother was Rh negative. She never had any c-sections or other things that the author lists as a risk factor. By my grandma’s fourth birth, the baby had to have a full blood transfusion at birth. Her fifth pregnancy ended in a tragic third-trimester miscarriage which completely wrecked my grandmother’s health.
    When she found out that I am also Rh negative, we spoke at length about how THANKFUL we can be that the Rhogam shot exists today. She would have given anything to avoid the terrible suffering she has endured. An article that starts all of this with the “Big Pharma” trope and included inaccuracies as glaring as saying that one can only be Rh negative if both parents were… should give all readers pause. Please base your medical decisions on evidence, not internet posts like this one.

    • Hi! My name is Cathy. My daughter has the RH-negative blood & I have the B Positive blood. My daughter had three miscarriages and two beautiful daughters. My daughter did have the Rhogam shots. She had the shots in the 90’s. One baby was born in 95′ the second baby was born in 98.’ Not until 2000 did they change the shot. These shots had 52% mercury in them. My youngest granddaughter is beautiful but she had a birth defect. She had to have surgery up at All Children’s Hospital. There is great Doctor’s up there in St. Petersberg, Florida. Those shots were not safe until 2000. Both of my granddaughters were emergency c-sections. They both were 7 month babies. One was 3lbs. & one was 2lbs. I learned a lot from my daughters pregnancy & RH negative blood type.

    • There are no “inaccuracies” in stating that the baby will be RH- if both parents are. Allopathic doctors agree. There is no such thing as a “Big Pharma trope.” A trope is something used in TV shows. It has nothing to do with the fact that the pharmaceutical industry exists for the purpose of hurting people and making them diseased in order to make money or currency. The RH issue is a dangerous issue. There should be something available to deal with it other then this toxic shot.

  20. Thanks for the article. There is now a blood test by Sequenom that can be done around 16(?) weeks of pregnancy to test the fetal Rh type–so if both mom & baby are negative, no need to have ANY Rhogam. But my question is this–can you please provide statistics used to push Rhogam on women? I looked into this with my first son, and found the absolute risk of having any problem was incredibly rare, but I can’t find those numbers now! Thanks.

  21. I am rh- (had the shot after both of my rh+ children) and just recently had a VERY uncomplicated miscarriage (no pain, very minimal bleeding and passed the baby very easily) at only 6 weeks. I feel no need to go to the doctor because I don’t feel any different physically and most women don’t even know they are pregnant this early (I tested early because we were waiting and hoping for this baby :( so would you recommend I get a rhogam shot for this miscarriage? You didn’t really cover miscarriage in this article but I have no reliable midwife to ask- the one I had with my last child pushed the rhogam shot. I would appreciate any advice you could give!

    • I think you have the rights to your opinion , but as an Rh- mother of five who’s taken this shot for all but one child and all but one got sicker and sicker until I stopped taking it , I think you should let us have our comments and let us do our own searching because no one cares about us but us. And it’s us who have to take these risks and if pharma really gave a damn they would have better testing because not all of us need this shot. This shot does save some life’s but have do you have any idea how many lives its taken?
      How is it possible for me to have all positive children but the my last child who I refused it with is the only child I have ever had who go to come home with me the next day? My children have had to stay for weeks after delivery, rhogam crosses the placenta how’s it better for someone else’s anti bodies to cross over ?
      So please don’t tell us to stop we Rh- blood types have to search for our self because of people like you who just think oh I learned this so it’s right ! Now I’m going to make sure to push my opinion on everyone else because I know something. Just like the doctors do but guess what we learn new things everyday and right now rhogam may be the answer you and some other people but its not the answer for me rhogam tries to kill my immune system and if I don’t want to take someone’s blood that’s my biz.
      Instead of telling us to stop you could just put your two cents in and hope for the best because I’m sure these ladies on here are just like me , looking for the answers , rhogam is not ment for all of us and they could at least use it how the company says and it’s not supposed to be used during pregnancy unless sometihing happens. And if the CDC cared that much about us why is it still a class C drug? It makes me feel like they are just still testing it only were the rats .

      • Cashmere,If you had shots for all your babies born postive,except for your last…then your last was your first bsby born with the RH facto. The first born is not affected. Antibodies build up for the mother against the fetus,now seen by the mother’s immune system as an invader.
        It’s a fact,the mother’s blood is not compatible with an RH+ bsjaby if they are born in succession. There are women who , before the Rhogam shot, who had alternate RH type babies. +,-,+,- the negative baby was like a vaccine to the mother so that the next positive baby would not be affected.

  22. Are you seriously asking people to forego a life saving injection? Before rhogam, 10,000 babies died per year due to erythroblastosis fetalis. It is rare now, so that’s how people like Sarah can write idiotic articles like this and get away with it. You are not a doctor, please stop giving medical advice. It is irresponsible. Maternal and fetal blood mix regardless of the birth had ‘interventions’ or not, considering the Rh factor was noted in 1609 by a midwife- no modern medical interventions in 17th century France! Natural does not equal superior. Your inaccuracies when discussing blood typing show that you should not be advising people regarding rhogam. Yes, two Rh negative parents won’t have an Rh positive baby, but why take the chance? There is no guarantee without a DNA test that the father really is the biological father of the fetus, which is why the injection is given regardless. You treat the mother with even the slightest possibility the baby might be positive, for the safety of her future babies.

    • I think 17th century midwives were quite capable of “helping deliver” placentas ( i.e., manual detachment which tears blood vessels which will in turn sensitize mom). They were also quite capable of tying umbilical cords before placental delivery. That’s a big cause of sensitization

      It seems to me that there was never a golden age of medicine, but modern practices should incorporate all techniques available based on modern science. They should not abandon techniques that decrease chances of sensitization just because a shot is available.

    • Stephanie? Really? There is a zero risk of problems if the father is also RH-. To suggest that the woman may not know who the father is is certainly making an assumption based on what??? The Guarantee regarding who the father is is most probably certain in the mind of the mother, I would assume she knew who she slept with. To suggest the mother should have the potentially dangerous shot with zero evidence of an RH pos. father is irresponsible as it gets…do you work for the medical industry perhaps?

  23. Hi,
    I am a mother of 2 children with RH +. Now I am in the 28th week of my third pregnancy. As I remember I haven’t gotten any shots in my previous pregnancies. My second child suffers from a hearing loss. Could it be because I didn’t get the shot? So confused…should I get the shot knowing that it can have so many risks?

    • Lia,
      Are you Rh-? If so, you should have the Rhogam injection. Your doctor should test your blood for blood type. If you are Rh+ you don’t need to worry about it. Please don’t listen to this ridiculous article. Your baby’s safety is more important, and your OB knows better than a blogger mom.

      • Doctors don’t listen and think they know everything , and they lie, if my doctor hadn’t lied to me and even knew what she was giving me instead of telling me oh you just need this I would have never done any research on rhogam so thanks doc for taking away my faith in their care .
        And thanks to all 3 of the doctors who just dropped me instead of helping me get thru my pregnancy without rhogam because that do no harm I guess doesn’t count if you refuse an intervention , oh and lets not forget how they tried real hard to trick me into have all the tests that would ensure I needed rhogam. Is it really so hard to try and help us find another way? I don’t think so , all the money spent on useless crap but we can’t get a study going for us , I mean haven’t we grown and learned much in the last 60yrs ? Naw I guess us 15 percent isn’t worth it , so were just going to keep taking it no matter the side effects , and no one knows how it affects our kids but hey whatever lets all jump off a bridge to but only if the doctor says ;)

      • Stephanie,

        You Should. You should. You should.
        Why are you so intent to tell people what they should do, then tell someone that they shouldn’t tell people They should.
        Are you a pharmaceutical expert? Do you test drugs? Do you have all the statistics? If so, please continue to tell people what they should medically do, if not please rethink the absurd advice you’re giving. Please tell me Stephanie, what is the difference between the rh neg and rh pos. Is it just a protein? How about this for size, one is related to the rhesus monkey- the other is not. This means that there is a direct and distinct difference between human DNA. This means that DNA changed somewhere- and not by evolution. Consider what that means. If an rh negative woman was supposed to conceive an rh positive child, then the body would, free of injecting the blood of another human being. And are you aware of the implications of what happens when you inject the blood of another human being into yourself? No, well then quit tell telling people what to do.
        There is more to the genetic code, DNA and the origins of man than you realize and maybe science should stop tampering with things that are none of their freaking business. Kinda like what You. Should. DO.

      • If you are Rh-, once your body has made antibodies against an Rh+ baby, Rhogam is useless. It prevents the antibodies beforehand, but does not eliminate antibodies that have already been formed. So if you didn’t get it with your previous children and their blood mixed with yours forming antibodies, Rhogam isn’t going to do a single thing for you. I would get tested for antibodies FIRST. If you have them, then Rhogam is useless to you. But if you don’t, then I would consider getting it during your next pregnancy. But it’s your decision alone, don’t let your OB bully you into getting it just because it’s “protocol.” My OB flat-out lied to my face on multiple occasions. Whether they did it purposely or out of ignorance, I don’t know, but neither of those is satisfactory to me. I went with better care this time… and got a midwife. I’m Rh- myself, and while I got Rhogam last time, I might not this time. Still considering my options. But it will be MY decision, not my OB’s this time.

  24. I’ve read most of the comments on your post and found that no one disagrees with you….except me apparently. Which has me wondering…Do you delete comments that contradict or disagree with your article? Typically any post that is pro or anti vac gets a lot of controversy in the comments yours seems to have none or very little.

    I got the shot with both of my pregnancy’s and surprise I delivered to healthy and happy children.

  25. I’m curious on if the Rh- injection is necessary if you are Rh-, your baby is Rh+ and you had a Csection. I will require a Csection with this child (if I didn’t REALLY need it than I would deliver naturally). This will also be my last child and I am planning on having a tubal ligation after delivery. Since I will not have any more children is it safe to skip the shot completely even if the baby is Rh+?

  26. I am O- and father is A+ . I had the fetal RHD Geno testing done to test the fetal blood type through blood. The fetus is RH Positive. I am not sensitized (confirmed through blood test) and this is my first pregnancy. I want to stay away from the Rhogam shot, but still unsure of facts at this point. I have done my research, but still missing a lot of facts/answers.

    My question is “why doesn’t it affect your first” and if it “doesn’t affect your first, what would be the point getting the rhogam at 28 weeks routinely? Also if trauma were to happen, if “it doesn’t affect your first” what is the point getting Rhogam? I understand its for the second and babies there after. However, would like to know more fact and info why it does not affect your first and reference to that fact. If trauma has happened and the blood mixes being it is my first pregnancy,, will the rhogam shot help the current baby?

    Since I am over 35, I have a risk of what other ladies were talking about “placenta previa”. A low-lying placenta may be picked up during your mid-pregnancy anomaly scan at between 18 weeks and 20 weeks plus six days of your pregnancy. If you are overweight, or have other complications that may have affected the quality of the scan images, you should be offered an additional scan. This will be before you are 23 weeks pregnant. So if a placenta previa can be detected before hand and your blood can be checked to see if its sensitized, and no trauma has occurred and have a healthy pregnancy, is it still safe to not get the Rhogam shot or are their any other factors I am missing?.

  27. Interesting. I have a question. I am rh – and my baby is rh+. I received the rhogam shot at 28 weeks and then again at 48 hrs after my completely natural birth. Zero interventions. However, I then found out at 4 weeks postpartum that I had retained placenta and had a d&c to remove it. Is there a chance for some type of blood mixing in that situation from the placenta? Or would the shot I had pp still have been in my system? I’m confused about how that works.

  28. Pingback: The story behind Miriam Carey | Dolphin

  29. I’ve had a total of 7 pregnancies, and am RH-, so I’ve had MANY Rhogam shots over the years. Even with my last birth, which was a beautiful homebirth, I still consented to the prenatal Rhogam. I will not this time around, nor will I consent to the postnatal shot.

    I wanted to point out, for your information, that you spelled “flouride” wrong in your article. I’m not telling you this to be annoying, but rather because the validity and credibility of articles like this come into question among naysayers at the smallest error in statements of factual information and in spelling or grammatical errors.

    I’ve enjoyed watching your youtube videos on making butter, ghee, and homemade baby formula. I’m inspired and intrigued by anyone brave enough to go against the grain!!! :o)

  30. Interesting article, and I agree with much of what you wrote. I happened upon it, as I am also Rh- working in central China. Should anyone else in China (like Jen) need and opt for this shot, http://mm.zxiw.com/rhd.asp is a useful sight that will apparently help arrange the shot for you (as well as provide you with a list of blood donors). Re: Stanley, “She ignored the situation in China, where there was no autism at all, none, until a few years ago, when Big Pharma vaccines were introduced. Now there are over two and one half million autistc children in China, and the rate is growing.The China situation is direct evidence that vaccines cause autism.” Like most things in life, reality is quite complex. While it could be due to vaccines, it could just as easily be due to extremely high levels of pollution here. Over the past 30 years, China has become one of the most polluted countries on the earth, with all kinds of chemicals floating around in the air and water. Nothing exists in a vacuum, and while we can all speculate… it’s difficult to find the real cause.

  31. Hello,

    above article is so interesting. But i am searching other things. i would like to know about if rhogam applied on rh possitive women, what is the side effects of that medician (rhogam)

    i am waiting your reply.


  32. I have a question if anyone can answer would be greatly appreciated. with my first pregnancy I received 1 rhogam they told me I didn’t need the other because my sons positive blood had missed with mine. I have had 2 children since then with extensive medical treatment my daughter and son where born with my blood type(thank god because my husband is o positive) what effect will this have with my daughter and son when they begin having children? any answer will help thank you.

  33. Hi,

    I’m Rh- and I’m expecting my first child. I am being judged, hated and my midwife told me shame on you for not wanting to take the rhogam shot during pregnancy. She said she was against my decision but will have to sign a paper saying that I refused medical care. I think she was unprofessional and she definitely made me feel like a horrible mom. I decided to not get the shot during pregnancy and just get it after birth if our lil one is +. I hated the way the midwife made me feel and would love to hear from other moms who like me didn’t get the shot (to feel less stressed and to feel like im doing a good thing here)


    • Lulu, you are doing the right thing, the Rhogam shot will/could do more harm than good even if your baby is +. Sounds like you should get a new midwife!!! Imagine trying to birth with such a negative and horrible person there!!! If h/she is positive, then get the shot and your furture babies will be protected. I am rh- and both of my babies are – too, so no shots for me (I would have had either been positive)!– but it affects future babies, not your current one. so there is a chance of no shot! hugs to you!!

    • Wow, shame on that midwife for treating you that way! I am surprised that as a midwife she isn’t more familiar with mothers who make that same choice. I also did not take the shot during pregnancy and I’m SO glad I didn’t! I decided that only if my baby was Rh+ AND there was blood mixing (there is a test you can do and for the life of me I can’t remember the name of it right now) THEN I would take the rhogam. Well, my homebirth turned into a much more traumatic hospital forceps delivery, so my baby’s Rh+ blood did mix a bit with mine. So, I took the rhogam. I’m still so so glad that I didn’t take it during pregnancy, though. Good for you for making an informed decision! Don’t let anyone discourage you for doing what you feel is right and safe for you and your baby!!

      Blessings to you and your growing little one!

      • Thank you very much ladies!! I am staying strong and sticking to my guts. I am looking for a new midwife and we will see how that goes. Question, when you refused the shot during pregnancy did you guys signed a paper denying medical care or the shot in specific. My midwife told me that I would have to sign a paper stating that I am refusing medical care and Im a little uncomfortable with the wording. Any thoughts?


        • Well, based on my own experience, once you refuse the shot, or in my case a medical error causes you to not get the shot, your pregnancy problems can start to spiral if you end up sensitized. I can understand how the midwife would need to cover herself with this broader spectrum in mind. Also, I was sensitized during a pregnancy and after my seeing my daughter born sick and in the nicu I really have a hard time grasping how one would refuse this shot on purpose. Keep in mind, if you are looking to go a more natural route in terms of your childbirthing, but something goes wrong due to not having Rhogam, it could be days, if not weeks until you can hold your baby, nurse, etc. and the treatment for the baby is far more medically daunting– Rhogam will seem like a walk in the park in retrospect.

          • Hi Kelly,

            Im so sorry to hear about your little one and I’m glad things worked out. How far along were you when you were sensitized? Was it during birth? or before that? I’m still in between deciding to get it or not. There is so much contradicting information out there that it is hard to make a decision but I do appreciate your comment and will definitely will keep it in mind.


          • Lulu,

            If you are Rh- and your husband is Rh+, you should consider getting the Rhogam shot. If blood were to mix (which can happen during labor or any trauma), your body can form antibodies against the Rh+ blood type. Any children that you bear after that have the Rh+ blood type can develop mild to severe anemia in utero and can even lead to death.

            However if you know that your husband is Rh- or you are Rh+ there is no need to get the shot.

  34. I tried really hard to make sure there was no clamping of the cord but I had her in the car and they said they could not transport us in the building attached. Something about hemoridging. I should have waited an half hour before giving into my hubby, I could have had her at home and just for my placenta to come out! Next time :)

  35. I’m suprised there is no mention of umbilical cord clamping/cutting in your article. NOT cutting or clamping the cord is absolutely essential in preventing an exchange of blood between mother and baby. Until the cord has completely stopped pulsing, there is a very important transfusion process happening…where each person’s blood is going where it should. Allowing the placenta to be birthed before any trauma to the cord is absolutely imperative.

  36. I read alot alot and somewhere It said that only 15 percent of us will need rhogam.
    If that’s true then they need better testing to find the ones that need it!
    It’s hard discussing our issues with doctors because they want all of us to take it and if you don’t like I didn’t they will drop you like three doctors did to me.
    Deciding not to take it gave me fear but I kept my faith because I think if God didn’t want us having kids we wouldn’t be having kids!
    I think rhogam is an experiment on us and it’s a class C drug meaning it has not been tested on humans only animals and their fetus suffered!
    Yes some of us need it and some of us don’t .

  37. Kelly,

    Unless your titers are sky high there’s probably no reason why you can’t have another baby. I had two sensitized pregnancies (winrho failure) and even with the second iso pg, I didn’t require any IUTs or any postnatal treatment for my son aside from the double bilis for his pathological jaundice. He made it to 37w just fine before we induced. My titer was 1:64 at the time. His MCA dopplers were all in the normal range. He was Rh positive too.

    Good luck. You can always have a consult with your peri and get his/her opinion. We did that before TTCing and they gave us the green light to go ahead.

  38. I think this article is written in a very anti Rhogam voice. I find it hard to believe that this day in age most Drs do not test the father for there RH status. If they do not, then switch Doctors. The article written is inaccurate in its statements below.

    “This small risk arises if there is any mixing of blood between the mother and the fetus. Under normal circumstances, this never occurs, but in the event of a car accident or trauma to the mother’s belly, some mixing of blood is possible. ”

    “No harm can come to the baby the first time mixing occurs.”

    I developed my antibody during my first pregnancy at 13 weeks due to bleeding with partial placenta previa. Placenta Previa is not uncommon during pregnancy it is also not caused by trauma. Thankfully, at 39 weeks I had an ultrasound due to lack of moment and emergency c-section immediately following with a blood transfusion for the baby within 12 hours of birth. The antibody was not discovered until the second pregnancy.

    If more medical professionals and mothers were aware that blood can mix during pregnancy, we would have more preventative measures not less. Rhogam is most likely more of a blessing to many mothers than they realize. My antibody is Kell, not D. Although I guarantee you 99% of those that read your article have not a clue what Kell, anti-Kell, or any other alphabet antibody means to a pregnancy. It means my third child that was also Kell positive like my first was born at 31 weeks. She had a blood transfusion and spent 6 weeks in the NICU. It means the risk of the next Kell positive baby being attacked earlier in the womb is greater…so much so that my Maternal Fetal Medicine Specialist discussed sperm donor or considering this to be my last pregnancy. Other preventative measures are available including Intrauterine Blood Transfusions – these each have a loss rate of the baby of 1 to 2% and generally when you need one you need more. Would I have taken a shot if it were available for Kell? Yes.

    Maybe the discussion should be about ways to improve the Rhogam shot or to better identify those that may be at risk for side effects. Encouraging mothers not to have the Rhogam shot with out giving them the reason why to have it is pure ignorance. The Rhogam shot was not created for pharmaceutical companies to make money, it was created because enough mothers grieved over the loss of a child.

    • Hi, Virginia. Yes, so well put. Rhogam saves lives. I am rh- and had bleeding early in my pregnancy which the nurse practicioner brushed off as no big deal and then I am sensitized with the D antibody having not received the Rhogam. If an rh neg woman thinks she may ever want another child and she wants the child to be born sick like mine was and/or she wants to cry herself to sleep not knowing what the next pregnancy will bring then by all means, refuse the Rhogam shot.

  39. Muriel, thank you for sharing your heart. It is so important to do your own research and therefore make the decisions that are best for your family. I pray your baby will be well at birth. IT is good to know both sides of the situation. For me, being RH-, I decided to wait until after labor and birth, and thankfully, after two peaceful and non-traumatic home births, we found that both children were negative as well. I would have taken the shot if either was positive, however, because sometimes intervention such as this, as you well-state, is necessary!! Blessings!

    • Hi Amy,
      Great to hear your babies both were Rh neg! Of course, in most cases we don’t need all the interventions that have become possible in western medicine, and thank goodness we don’t :-) As long as people do their own research, and make their own decisions, supported by facts instead of fear, I think we’re on the right track. Enjoy your family :-)

  40. Please, please don’t avoid taking Rhogam without discussing your own situation at length with a doctor you trust! Some facts from a sensitized mum:
    – “No harm can come to the baby the first time mixing occurs.” As from the first mixing, the mother’s blood will start producing antibodies, which will cross the placenta and attack the baby’s blood. *Usually* though, this mixing occurs late enough in the pregnancy, so as to not significantly damage the baby concerned. The antibodies, however, will flare up as soon as the mum is pregnant again.
    – Rhogam is “effective only if the immunoglobulin is administered within 72 hours of the trauma.” Rhogam is also effective if the trauma happens within 6 weeks of its administration. With the 2 standard shots, the 12 last weeks of pregnancy are covered,
    which is the time when most mixing occurs.
    -“It is possible for some of the Rhogam antibodies to find their way into the fetus’ bloodstream and attack them causing the very Rh Disease in the fetus that the shot is supposed to prevent!” Rhesus disease develops over time, and its severity depends on the concentration of antibodies in the mothers’ blood as well as the agressiveness of the antibodies – both low in Rhogam. To my knowledge (and I have been devouring information ever since my first sensitized pregnancy in 2010), there has never been a baby who became anemic due to Rhogam! By the way, you don’t need a trauma for antibodies to cross from mother to baby, so if this thesis would hold true, any Rh+ baby would become anemic if his mother was injected with Rhogam.
    – Rhogam is a “donated blood product” and therefore carries risks. Well, yes. Just compare it to the risk your baby will be running when you avoid the Rhogam, you get sensitized, and then your baby needs multiple transfusions, starting in the womb, and possibly even needing an exchange transfusion, replacing his/her own blood. Then you not only have the “donated blood product”, but also the procedure that brings a very real risk of its own to the (operating) table.
    – “prenatal RhoGam shots have become routine and arbitrary ” – thus almost eliminating the life threatening rhesus disease! Have your own and the father’s bloodgroup retested, or even have the test to determine the baby’s rhesus factor through your blood, if you prefer to avoid the shot, don’t just refuse it on principle. Please.
    I was sensitized early on in my previous pregnancy, which is rather exceptional, thank goodness. My youngest baby needed “just” 3 days of NICU and 2 rounds of IVIG (another lifesaving blood product) to survive unscathed. I am now 35w pregnant with my 3rd child, and my baby has just had 60ml of blood administered, through my womb, on an operating table with 10 doctors present, under epidural, knowing that at any moment the procedure may go wrong and she would have to get out immediately. And knowing how lucky we are to even have that 2nd option available. Really, the 2 routine shots to avoid this, they are worth it!
    PS – this whole story is about “anti-D”, or the rhesus factor. There is a whole alphabet out there of similar but more rare antibodies, which can all cause rhesus disease. All women are routinely screened for these, and trust me when I tell you that the ladies who have been sensitized with any of these would go to great lengths to have had a solution as simple as Rhogam available to them!
    PPS – if you are sensitized and want to talk to people who’ve been there, done that and can help you understand, get in touch!

    • Hi, Amy. I am having a hard time dealing with this after being sensitized ( D ) after a bleed and my doctors didn’t give me Rhogam (I saw a nurse practicioner an she forgot about my rh status). It keeps me up at night especially since I really really wanted and planned to have another baby. It is just so frustrating. I believe its Baby Center (think) that has a good website/board I was on for a while o yo uknow of another?

      • Hi Kelly,
        sorry you have to go through this. Yes, Baby Center has a very active board on this, come and talk to us if you like. It is not easy, but another baby is very much possible, even if you’re sensitized. Best of luck!

        • Hi, Amy. Yes, I must get back on there, that really is the best site for rh! Good luck with the remainder of your pregnancy! Let us know how you and baby are doing!

  41. Hi ,
    Just an update I had my daughter last week , I wanted a homebirth but had her in our car!
    I did not receive rhogam and she is my fifth and is the only one who got to leave the hospital with me the next day. She was not jaundice or anemic like my others.
    I drank raspberry leaf an nettle tea for my uterus and blood , my titer stayed at 1.1 and she is a positive. Happy to have a healthy baby !

  42. Have you heard about a homeopathic type of rhogam? I just asked a homeopath about it, and I’m waiting for a response.
    I’m rh negative and my husband is rh positive. I’m pregnant with our 4th child. Our first three have been rh positive. I got the rhogam with the first three because I didn’t know of alternatives. We do have a history of vaccine injury, so we really want to avoid the rhogam this time. And we’ll be doing a homebirth this time (first time).

  43. I am a case of rhogam (winrho, to be specific) failure. I had two prenatal shots. One for bleeding at 12w, and the routine prenatal one at 30w (my midwife did them a bit later). I was still testing negative for anti-D antibodies when I received the third trimester shot.

    My daughter was stillborn at 40w for unknown reasons. When you have a late term stillbirth, there is a vast amount of testing done: infectious agents, autopsy, cultures, pathology on the placenta, everything. What struck me was that she suffered from IUGR during the last trimester and from her measurements, it appeared to have started right after the last rhogam shot. She was normal and healthy during her previous scan. My placenta also showed signs of chronic vilitis, so some kind of inflammation took place at that time as well that gradually resulted in decreased blood flow through the placenta.

    No one would even entertain the idea that my body might have reacted to the injection that I received…that perhaps that inflammation and seeming immune reaction was somehow correlated. Her death was officially ruled unexplained. All the testing led to no answers.

    The rhogam might have been completely innocuous. I will never know. If I could do things differently, I would have waited until after she was born to have the shot.

    Then I found out that I had become sensitized sometime between 30w and delivery as well. That was the final injustice. She was dead and the winrho failed.

    I went on to have two healthy living children, both isoimmunized (sensitized) pregnancies. They did not require any intrauterine transfusions nor other substantial interventions while in utero. I was monitored more frequently, they were induced at 37w, and required bili lights for a week each, but that was all. They were my light at the end of a very dark tunnel and I still regret going with rhogam/winrho during my first pregnancy.

  44. I, like most of you am Rh- while hubby is Rh+. With my first child I had done a lot of research and concluded that I definitely did not need to take the prenatal shot… it’s pretty useless, and way too risky. After my daughter was born I did get the shot (she was rh+), in fear of what it may do to the next baby if blood mixed. Not long after receiving the shot, I ran a very high fever for several days. Thank goodness my Mom was there to help with the baby… I pretty much lived on the couch. I am totally convinced that the fever was due to my body fighting off the toxins from shot, or reacting to the foreign blood somehow. The shot I was given was even a thimerosal free version. I just hope and pray that it didn’t affect my child while nursing… I still worry about this. Now I am pregnant with my second child, and due in December. I’ve been doing even more research on rh factor, and I’m pretty sure I will not receive another shot. I had a home birth with the first one, and will do the same with the second. Besides a home birth being a wonderful experience, there is a much less chance of becoming sensitized that way. In doing research, I came across the “DU-variant”. It is a D antigen that is weakly expressed in blood type tests. If you have this weak D antigen, it will make you actually have Rh+ blood. It was said in these articles, that Rh- women should be tested further for the Du variant. I just called and asked about this, and no one new what I was talking about. I wonder if you’d have to go to a specialist for this? I can’t find anything about the percentage of Rh- people with this weak D antigen either. Ugh, it’s all so frustrating. It’s a gamble if you get the shot, and a gamble if you don’t. However, if you have a natural birth at home, I believe the risks of getting the shot are greater than the risks of becoming sensitized during birth. I just can’t trust that the medical industry has our best interests at heart. It’s a business. Good luck to everyone in making your decision… whatever it may be! We all just want healthy babies!

  45. For some reason I am seeing posts suggesting that during the first decades of the Rhogam injections in the USA they were given only after birth and not during. This is not correct, during the late 1960’s (about 1968) when they first started Rhogam immunizations they were also injecting at 25 & 26 gestation. There was no informed consent in 1968 about the blood products, about the Thimerosol, and they did not test the father to even see if it was even medically appropriate. If you were Rh-, you got the shots, often without any explanation other than it was due to a recent mutation that might prevent you from having babies. Both myself and a girlfriend who received these shots during pregnancy had extreme immune system response, becoming chemically sensitive to everything, which has continued in the decades since the immunization. Nothing they say about this immunization makes sense and it looks more like an experiment in human genetic engineering than anything to protect babies and mothers to me. Injecting going on three generations of Rh- women with this during pregnancy has been extremely detrmential to the Rh- gene pool. Also, it is not a recent mutation: some of the oldest human remains found in Europe have been Rh-, including Ice Man.

    • Are you implying that antibody isoimmunisation does not exist? And so what if rh- has been around since the ice ages. I’m sure it has. Does not mean that babies haven’t died from anemia cause by the mom.being sen275706600sitized.

      There is a theory that king Henry VIII carried the kell antibody and that is why so many of his wives couldn’t have more than 1 child and had miscarriages. The theory also states that he had a mutation I guess is the best word, related to his antigen that caused him to go crazy. So yes antibodies are a real thing.

  46. I am so glad I read this. I just found out I am pregnant with my 3rd child and I have O negative blood. My husband is B negative. But for my first two pregnancy they gave me the Rogam shot, which I was always uneasy about getting. This time there is no way I will get it.

  47. My doc told me that since I had rhogam last time the baby I’m carring now won’t be affected but all my next children will be. I will have to find out when it happens. But I am going to try and have as natural a labor as possible even if it means at home. If my new doc will let me have intervention free labors I am less likely to pass blood to baby. Search for mothers who have been sensitized but still had healthy babies

  48. Thank you, Sara, for this article, and thank you everyone else for your comments! They are very helpful. I’m Rh-, my husband is Rh+, and I’m nearing the 28 week mark in my pregnancy, so I’ve been researching Rhogam pretty intensively. I’m against vaccinations in general, but for some reason it didn’t occur to me earlier that the same risk factors that make me want to stear clear of vaccines also apply to the Rhogam shot. After careful consideration, I think I’ve decided not to take Rhogam during my pregnancy, but I’m still unsure about what to do after delivery if my baby is Rh+. I wouldn’t hesitate at all in such a case except I’m worried about the potential of harmful ingredients in the shot passing to my newborn through my breastmilk since I know I’ll be breastfeeding. Is it really safer to take Rhogam with a breasfeeding baby than with a baby in utero? Has anyone had experience with this or thought about it or read anything? I seem to be finding a lot of people worried about the 28-week shot, but no comments regarding the safety of taking it while breastfeeding.

    • First baby was ab-. Second baby born at home w/out intervention, typed her blood was b+ . Took the Rhogam shot within 3 hours (why the rush I do not recall). Exclusively breastfed. By the 48hr check-up fever of 101.7 (still nursing like a champ) & green mucosy stool. Upon midwives advice ER. Urine, blood & spinal tests. Checking for GBS sepsis & anything else. No consideration of vaccine type reaction to Rhogam though the Immunoglobulin it is built on is one of the ones passed in my milk, not one mention of the irregular stool or her blood type in the records. 1 dose of Ch/Tylonol in NICU fever gone, did not return. Initial results negative for everything. 24 hr & 48 hr results same. White blood cell count was high. They wanted to keep our newborn for IV antibiotics for 7 DAYs and lecture us about vaccines. Upon ?s and asking to look at records, lies, lies & hiding records from us. Once we saw it took time to change OFFICIAL MEDICAL RECORDS that stated LIES! Left against medical advise *AMA after having to fix more lies in DR.s final exam report on day 5. We were clearly being taught a lesson. Keep looking for research. I have not found any on the safety of the breastfeeding child. This is not a non issue. Little girl will be 3 just after the birth of our third baby, she is bright and doing well. Thanks for the discussion.

  49. And now I’ve had this shot 8 times and I asked them to check my husbands blood they won’t tell him what he is they said they can’t give out that information. I am refusing the shot this time and I asked if we could plan a natural birth as in no assistance unless nessacerry, and to wait till the placenta is out before they clamp the cord and no meds including ivs but kaiser told me no they don’t do that! I’ve done a lot of reaserch on the shot an my doc is either stupid or does not check out the facts, either way I my be having my baby at home just to not get the shot! It should not be this hard to have a natural birth and I should have full say so when it comes to my body and my kids but it seems like I have no rights to me in their eyes

    • Dear Porsche, wow I’m so sorry to hear about your situation. There are a lot of doctors out there that are much more willing to give proper care and I suggest finding one!!!! A home birth is a good option too, if you can find a good homebirth midwife in your area. This link is to a simple blood test you can purchase for $8 that pricks your husband’s blood and you can find out his blood type. I hope this helps for your peace of mind. I believe the Rhogam shot is only necessary after birth, or if there is a significant trauma after pregnancy — if you plan on having more children after this birth. Blessings to you in your new doctor search!!! -Amy http://www.radiantbelly.com/elbltykit.html

  50. I agree that the 28 wk shot is a “pharma ploy”. With my first son (birthed at home), we tested his blood twice and found he was negative, so no shot for me. Now, 5 wks from being due with my second, I still have not received a shot and will wait until his/her blood type results come in. If it’s negative, yippee, no shot, but if it is positive, I will take the shot (not pregnant!) because I want to have more babies and the blood mixing of future babies is not something I am willing to risk. It produces incredibly sick babies and I would never forgive myself. I am anti-vax, and my 2 yr old will remain un-vaxxed, but I feel this is one risk I am willing to take. Thanks for an informative article.

  51. Although it was last year, wanted to say something about why an epidural could increase the risk of blood mixing. A LARGE number of women who receive an epidural in labor require medication (usually pitocin) to augment their labor afterwards, as the anesthesia affects not only pain perception but also muscular action of the uterus. And pitocin is one of the causes of blood mixing. IF there is a pitocin induced strong contraction after separation of the placenta (when some of the fetal vessels in the placenta could be torn, particularly if active cord traction is done by the birth attendant) then fetal blood in the uterus could be forced into the open maternal blood sinuses from the placental attachment site. INstant blood mixing.

    Regarding the shot needing to be within 72 hours. What we know is, if the Rhogam is given within 72 hours after the birth, it appears to prevent maternal development of Rh antibodies. We don’t know if it would if given later than that, because the original research was done on female inmates, who were returned to prison 72 hours after birth, so all the Rhogam doses were given within the first 72 hours. THat’s the reason for the somewhat arbitrary 72 hour time frame.

    REgarding why it is recommended at 28 weeks…it was originally expected that if Rhogam was given to ALL Rh – moms who had Rh + babies, no subsequent babies would be affected by maternal antibodies. But there still was a small percentage of moms who became sensitized prior to birth. THe thought was that there were some moms who had undetected partial abruptions causing blood mixing earlier. I’m not sure how 28 weeks was hit upon as optimal time to prevent sensitization. I believe I read that it dropped the rate from 3% to 0.5%.

    Why would an OB want an RH – mom with an Rh- partner to get Rhogam anyway. It’s because they don’t believe that she is reliable regarding who the father is. .. Simple as that. They are not willing to take the chance that she is hiding something. Seems to me the mom should be the one making the call.

    I’m a CNM. Believe in giving folks the info and letting them make the choice.

  52. Hi Sara-
    This article was so helpful for me. My husband and I are second language teachers living in China, and are 7 1/2 months pregnant with our first baby. We obviously had our blood tested early on. When the results came back that I am RH- and my husband is RH+, our doctors did not inform us of any risks this would pose. I have a friend who happened to mention to me about a month ago that she had to go to Thailand to receive the Rhogam shot- it’s not carried here in China. At 30 weeks I went to Hong Kong and had my blood tested for antibodies. THis being my first pregnancy, I am not currently producing any. The shot, however, was extremely out of our pay-grade. It has been a week since the Doctor in Hong Kong recommended the shot to me, and I have been researching the risks and benefits. I feel extremely uneasy about receiving it while I am pregnant with my daughter. I am Type 1 Diabetic, however, and will most likely have a Cesarean birth, to avoid blood sugar rises and falls that occur during labor. I’m feeling torn and limited about what we should do.

    If my blood mixed with my baby’s blood during birth and my body began creating antibodies, what is the likelihood that my next pregnancies would be compromised?

  53. Thank you for your thoughtful article. I am Rh- and had a homebirth to a Rh- baby boy, though we did test my husband, who is Rh+. I was so thankful that I was informed and didn’t receive any needless shots. I am again pregnant, currently at 28 weeks, but will wait until we test this baby’s cord blood to see if a Rhogam shot will be necessary at all. (Praying for another Rh- baby :) ). However, if my baby is positive, since he/she will already be out of my body, I will take the risk of taking the shot so that any future babies will not run the risk of blood poisoning or sickness. I am hestitant, but have made this decision after researching what can happen to future babies if the Rh- and Rh+ blood mixed. We are a vaccine-free family, so I don’t take this decision lightly, but wanted to express that sometimes (even despite the shoddy ingredients of aluminum and thimerasol), medical intervention can be a positive thing.

  54. I think we have to look at the REALITY, not assumption, but REALITY, of the fact that prior to Rhogam the hospital nurseries were FULL of babies suffering from (often dire) consequences due to Rh Disease. That alone is a huge indication of the good Rhogam does. Your average OB today knows very little about a mother becoming sensitized because it is so very rare, and most OBs have never had to deal with a case of it because Rh- women are administered Rhogam. This is still a big problem in poor countries offering low to no prenatal care. In my case, I was not given Rhogam because the OB office FORGOT and I became sensitized. My daughter survived due to excellent NICU care and medical intervention. She is one VERY lucky little girl that things turned out the way they did. I have to hope and pray everyday that my next pregnancy outcome is as good. I don’t like having to gamble my baby’s health on luck. Drinking the water and breathing the air thatis so polluted can probably kill us too, nothing is ever pefect, but hey, breathing and drinking water FAR outweighs the risks of avoiding them! Same with Rhogam. I highly doubt had sipped some tea this could have all been avoided.

    • Kelly, how awful for you, and thank God your baby girl is better now. I agree with you, sometimes medical intervention is useful. I am also Rh-, but my first son was also negative, but for this baby we will test again and if s/he is positive, I will be more than willing to take the Rhogam shot. (This is once the baby is out, unless I have some type of trauma between now and the birth.) My homebirth midwives are very adament in recommending the Rhogam shot if a postive baby is born to a negative mother because they have seen the results of not doing so. I wish that this article would have expressed that, yes, though there is some risk in the ingredients, risking your future children is not worth it. Blessings to you and prayers for another future baby (with Rh- blood!!)

    • Kelly, can I ask if your little girl was your first baby? I’m so confused with all the info out there as to whether or not moms can become sensitized during the pregnancy or is it only the subsequent babies that are at risk? I’m curious what your experience was.

      • Yes you can become sensitized during a first pregnancy, you can become sensitized with no trauma and you can become sensitized even at a home birth. I have kell antibodies which is basically the same but a different protein in the blood. There is no rhogram shot to prevent my antibody. My son recieved 4 blood transfusions in utero, I was induced at 34 weeks, he had a 3 week nicu stay and 1 post birth transfusion. This can be deadly. I belong to a support group for women dealing with isoimmunisation some moms became sensitized during a first pregnancy, some believed blog posts like these and declined rhogram, one had a homebirth her 6/7 child I believe it was where she became sensitized. Some have lost babies, many have transfusions during pregnancy and we all have extra monitoring ranging from monthly blood draws to multiple ultrasounds a week. I’d give anything to have taken a vaccine, taken the risk for my son to have been born full term without any donor blood. It breaks my heart what he went through even though he is a happy healthy toddler now.

        Please think about what this could mean for future pregnancies. It’s not something I’d wish for anyone to go through. And consider donating blood if you are able! It is the gift of life!

  55. I have a question. I am Rh negative and had two children. I had a shot after my first child because he was positive. Hubby was positive also. I didn’t have shot after the second because that was the last child I wanted. … This was back in 1970 and 1974.
    I have had lots of mysterious illnesses since, even after my second son was born, I had a high fever, was very ill, fatigued, nauseous, etc. The Drs. could never figure it out. Now I have all kinds of strange stuff, including some strange seizure like episodes, no one can diagnose it. Could it be the old first shot in 1970 affected my blood and maybe an ingredient in the shot caused some kind of hidden virus in me? It sounds crazy, but I thought I’d find out if any other ‘older women’ have experienced the same thing?

  56. Pingback: Refusal of the Rhogam (Anti-D) shot? - Page 3 - BabyandBump

  57. I was told that I was rh- when i was pregnant with my first child 8 years ago. When I went in for my rhogam shot this pregnancy…they didnt wait for my blood work results to come back before giving it to me. By the time I got back home they had called to tell me that my blood work came back with the results of me being rh+ now. Not sure how my blood changed…but I was wondering if my baby or myself are at any additional risks due to having the rhogam shot while being rh+

  58. Does anyone know why an epidural is one of the causes of blood mixing, the mechanics just don’t make sense to me… the needle is going in your back how does that reach the baby or the placenta?

    • Hi Sarah,
      I had not heard this, but could it possibly be that because the epidural changes the pace of labor (generally slows it down) that this change from the natural course of labor is enough to cause an increase of blood mixing in some cases? Just a thought.

  59. I wish I would have known this sooner! Wow! I have had Rhogam shot at 28 weeks and after birth with all 4 of my kids. With the last one i became very sick with a high fever for several days after. If I had it to do over with all I now know about vaccinations I wouldn’t have them!

  60. From what I understand, mom and baby’s blood don’t have to mix a second time to cause problems. One blood mixing causes the mom to make antibodies, and those antibodies pass freely into her baby’s blood (just like our antibodies for diseases do). Generally this is only a problem for the second Rh+ child.

    As to whether the tiny amount of antibodies from the Rhogam shot pass into the baby … I think they always do (antibodies, like I said, are transmitted to the baby constantly), and yet it’s such a tiny amount it doesn’t cause a problem. It will kill any Rh- blood it finds, but the baby is always creating more blood, while the Rhogam shot is slowly fading out. Whereas if the mom is making antibodies herself, these will pass into the baby during the whole pregnancy.

    I have known two moms who were immunosensitized to their babies. It’s very serious. Throughout the pregnancy, their antibodies were destroying their babies’ blood. The babies had to receive in-utero blood transfusions (amazing that they can do this) and were born premature and very sick. It’s very easy to be immunosensitized during birth, especially in the hospital where cord traction is standard.

    I have had the Rhogam shot twice, once at 28 weeks and once after the birth of my son. Next time I’ll probably just get it once, immediately after delivery, because there’s nothing magic about 28 weeks … if you have any trauma, you’ll still need another one.

    It’s important for Rh- moms to know that they should get the shot whenever they have a miscarriage as well, or any bleeding during pregnancy. (A doctor can tell you whether you are bleeding from the cervix (your blood, which is safe) or whether that’s the baby’s blood and will require the shot.)

    As far as the Basques go, they traditionally had a strong cultural bias against marrying outside their own ethnic group. Might that have been because of the Rh factor?

  61. Thank you so much for such a great article! I just was told by my ob that I would have to get the Rhogam shot by 28 weeks as I am RH neg. I am currently 24 weeks pregnant with my first child. I asked if my husband’s blood type could be tested and she told me it wouldn’t matter, she would give me the shot anyway. I INSISTED that my husbands blood be typed. Unfortunately, he is B pos. Hence, me additional research into this topic.
    My blood has never been tested to see if I am building any antibodies and I have had not had any signs of bleeding or trauma, previous miscarriage etc. I have had an overall healthy pregnancy so far.
    Right now I do not want to get the Rhogam shot until AFTER delivery if in fact its definitely necessary. I want to speak to another doctor who is more educated in this subject but don’t know where to go to find one. My research so far has led me to believe that a Perinatologist may be the best route but I’m not sure. Any suggestions from anyone would be MUCH apprecated!

  62. I was a bit confused when I clicked on the link that said “flouride has been shown to interfere with collagen production” as I was expecting to see a good resource with information backing this claim. The only thing I came across was the name of an obscure book by a Dr. John Yiamouyiannis. When I looked the name up, I found this: http://www.quackwatch.org/11Ind/yiamouyiannis.html
    It seems like a very well-researched article.
    I have to say that I’m rather disappointed by such a lack of citation on your part, because so far I’ve been really impressed by the information that I’ve found on your site.

  63. Hi Sarah,

    I am rh- and i do quite a bit of research on the subject as i was raised without shots and intend to keep with the tradition. I read here:
    that it is possible for two rh- people to give birth to an rh+ baby so I thought I would pass that on.

    Also I read on the same site that there is a new blood test that can tell you if your fetus is rh- or rh+ potentially telling you whether or not it is even necessary to consider the shot. It is called the RhD genotyping test and according to the company who puts it out it is covered by many insurances and is 98% correct.

    Also I read somewhere, though I cant find it now, that rh- women have a 30% chance of having an autistic child while the rest of the population has 2% chance-very alarming, I can only imagine it has a strong relationship to the many shots rh- women are told to have in America. About 30% of the Basque people of Spain and France are rh- (the hghest in the world) and they are not necessarily known for having higher rates of autism so it could not possibly be solely related to the rh factor.



  64. Sarah, I also have another question: once a woman has a C section, is it necessary for her to have C sections for future children? My daughter wanted so much to have a natural birth with her first child; she has told me that she will try for a natural birth with her next child. I am horrified at the prospect of her losing another child if natural childbirth became a problem during her labour and she wasn’t able to deliver successfully. She is not pregnant yet. I also forgot to mention in my last blog….my daughter received a second Rhogam injection after she delivered her Rh+ daughter.

    • I had two natural births after my c-section. :)

      I’m RH-. I refuse all prenatal Rhogam shots. This caused a few arguments with the OB during my first pregnancy. I switched to a CNM. Wound up with an emergency c-section. They tested baby’s cord blood, and he was RH+. I consented to the Rhogam shot.

      My second and third pregnancies were very similar. I found a group of amazing homebirth midwives. They had no issues with me refusing the Rhogam while pregnant. I had two fantastic homebirths. Yes, homebirths after a c-section. The births went perfect. No complications, no worries. Both times, the midwife typed the baby’s blood. It was at the 24 hr checkup where she also did the PKU tests. Both babies were RH+, so both times I consented to Rhogam.

      I’m okay with receiving Rhogam while not pregnant. I will not consent to it during pregnancy. I am also CMV-, and don’t want to chance getting infected with that, especially while pregnant.

      I’m not sure if there’s a difference, but with all three shots, I received individually sealed shots. They were not out of a multi-dose vial. I know with regular vaccines, the multi-dose vial has/had extra preservatives. (Such as mercury.) I knew with individual doses, no extra preservaties.

  65. My daughter who is AB Rh negative received the Rhogam injection at 28 weeks. She trusted the advice of her midwife. At that time, I knew nothing about Rhogam either. I trusted the midwife too. At 31 weeks my daughter suffered from a bad flu like illness. Prior to this her health was excellent, no complications, no problems. She recovered and went back to work. But at 32 1/2 weeks my daughter went into premature labour. Approximately eight hours and 45 minutes later, (my daughter had been in the hospital for a total of three hours) her doctor gave her a C section. Her 4 lb 9 oz baby girl, whose heart rate was regular and normal approximately 45 minutes before the C section had died from asphyxiation. My daughter’s amniotic fluid was off coloured and odd smelling. The placenta had also prematurely detached. My daughter’s white cell count was also higher than normal but the doctors did not pay close enough attention to that info. I have no way to prove that Rhogam played a vital part in this tragedy, but your statement, Sarah:
    “More concerning is that the Rh antibodies have the potential to negatively affect the immune response of either the mother or baby to other foreign substances that enter the bloodstream” haunts me. My daughter had not received a flu shot or any other shot during her pregnancy except the Rhogam. She hasn’t read this article yet and doesn’t realize either that Rhogam may indeed have played a vital role in the death of her daughter. It is much too soon yet to tell her that it may have. I dread having to tell her, but she does want to have another baby….and soon. She is still grieving. Sarah, do you know of any other cases such as this?

  66. Sarah,
    Thank you for writing this article! As a midwifery student, I studied this topic in-depth, including reading an enlightening book by Sara Wickham called “Anti-D in Midwifery: Panacea or Paradox?” that discusses what we do–and much more importantly what we DO NOT know about RhoGAM and how it affects the mother’s and the baby’s immune systems, etc. I think she makes an excellent case that further research would be needed before the medical community can say that it is “proven, safe, and effective”. I believe it is very important for care providers to give mothers all the good and bad information about RhoGAM, and let them make their own informed choice about what is best for them and their baby–not making the decision for them, and only giving them the information that would make them think they “have to” take the RhoGAM shot.

    Because our family is very naturally-minded, and is wary of unnecessary medical intervention, I am inclined to be very skeptical of things like RhoGAM that claim to be routinely necessary to “fix” something inherently wrong with women’s bodies. (I believe that God very much knew what he was doing when He designed the female body, and when He created the processes of conception, pregnancy, and birth!)

    Would you mind posting the sources you found about changing blood types through diet and herbs? I’ve heard of that before, but never was able to find more information on it.

    Thanks again!

  67. Crystal - Prenatal Coach October 9, 2010 at 1:19 am

    Thank you for this informative article! It's something I'll need to research further for my own pregnancy. I wish I could get tested BEFORE becoming pregnant so that I know whether it's even something I need to be concerned about or not. Not sure if they'll do that though. Something to look into!

    • If you go donate blood to the Red Cross they will then tell you your blood type and if it is negative or positive. For example A- (neg) blood is Rh negative, A+ blood is Rh positive etc.

  68. This is awesome! I'm Rh- and my babies are both +. Our blood didn't mix. We checked titers after both births, and we're fine (I've never had the Rhogam). I checked for sensitivity before conceiving my second and will do so again when we TTC #3, because I'd monitor my baby a lot more if I was sensitized.

    Our naturopath said that it's fairly common among homebirths for blood not to mix until after the 5th or so baby.

    • I’m curious about the titer testing. Was this for both you and the baby? And what is titer testing – does it test for antibodies? Could you explain more pls?

    • Hi, I’m curious about titer testing. Did you and the baby both get tested? What is titer testing – does it check for antibodies? Can you explain more please?

  69. Laurie Ashton Farook September 20, 2010 at 3:28 am

    "In addition, ensuring that no flouridated water or nonorganic tea (which is high in flouride) are consumed during pregnancy is wise as flouride has been shown to interfere with collagen production. The placenta attaches firmly to the uterus via collagen fibers."


    The surprise to me is not that the collagen keeps things attached – I know more about collagen than the average person thanks to a genetic collagen defect. It's the bit about fluoride interfering with collagen production that I find interesting.

    While my collagen is already defective, no doubt fluoride can make it even worse. This is clearly something I need to research in much more detail.

    Thank you for mentioning it. :)

  70. Sarah, the Healthy Home Economist September 12, 2010 at 1:49 am

    Erika, the choice is always yours of course but if it were me, I wouldn't let that needle near me knowing what I know after researching for this article.

  71. Oh, Sarah…I WISH I had known this two and a half years ago! I'm RH- and when told about the RhoGam shot while pregnant with my first, I felt very uncomfortable with it. Being SO new to all of this, (and not having any friends already on this journey) though, I felt like I didn't even have a choice. Then with our second, it was the same thing. What the docs shared, scared me! I honestly didn't feel like I had any choice, and it seemed like a life or death issue for the baby! We even came back to the States from a missions trip we were doing a month early because we were told how serious the shot was. Serious is right, just not the same direction they were leading us!

    I'm so glad I know now! Thank you so much for sharing this post!

    Quick question, though … now that I've had the RhoGam shot with both pregnancies, is it okay to not get it if we have a third?

  72. Sarah, the Healthy Home Economist September 11, 2010 at 12:36 am

    Hi Jen, yes – I believe your theory is very plausible. I refer to this very thing in the article under the "RhoGam Dangers" section.

  73. I also wonder with this too – (even outside of all the toxin issues) – if mom has rh-antibodies floating around because of the shot, could she also pass those to her baby and cause auto-immune issues for him?
    Thanks for a helpful article. Vaccines are a great theory, but there are too many unknowns, too little research, and too much money being made off of ignorance.

  74. I am so happy you posted this information! I am Rh- and my husband is Rh+. I've had 7 pregnancies/babies and 3 out of the 7 are Rh-. So, that makes 10 RhoGam shots in 13 years. Can you say TOXIC?? I try so hard to stay healthy and I really feel this has been holding me back. During my last pregnancy, I tried debating the doctor about not getting the shot at 28 weeks but I didn't really know how to debate it and she scared me into getting it AGAIN. Thank God none of my children have autism or ADHD or anything like that. Next time I'll know better! Thank you!!

  75. Sarh – I agree. That is exaxctly what they are saying. I read an article by a Pediatrician who claims that parents who oppose vaccines have "vaccinephobia". In other words, anyone who opposes vaccination is mentally ill. Her proof? No decrease in autism when all thimerosal was removed from vaccines. Of course her argument fails when you realize that the thimerosal was never removed.

    She ignored the situation in China, where there was no autism at all, none, until a few years ago, when Big Pharma vaccines were introduced. Now there are over two and one half million autistc children in China, and the rate is growing.The China situation is direct evidence that vaccines cause autism.

    Oh, I should mention that this same Pediatrician is a paid consultant for several Big Pharma vaccine companies.

  76. Sarah, the Healthy Home Economist September 9, 2010 at 6:41 pm

    Lori, very interesting .. during my research for this article I came upon some data that showed that autistic children many more times than not born to Rh negative women who would have gotten the mercury laced RhoGam shots. I'll see if I can dig up that link again.

  77. Sarah, the Healthy Home Economist September 9, 2010 at 6:11 pm

    Hi Joan, yes – thimerosal was in the original RhoGam and was supposedly removed in all batches by 2001 but this is disputable based on testing.

    Stanley – thanks for the comments. Yes, I think the fact that there hasn't been a decline in autism despite the supposed removal of thimerosal may have been a calculated move by Big Pharma. If the rates started to drop precipitously, then the dispute about thimerosal causing autism would have been an open and shut case. This way, by saying the vaccines are mercury free when they really aren't covers them legally and still gives them the ammo to say that vaccines never were one of the primary causes of autism.

  78. Great post, once again. My basic rule is this – just say no to vaccines, every vaccine, no matter what lies are being told to promote them. It is all about money.

    It is fascinating that Mercury appears to still be in every vaccination, even the the "thimerisol free" ones. This ecplains why Autism has not been reduced by the supposed elimination of thimerisol, because thimerisol is still in the vaccines!

    And the despicable, greedy medical profession and mainstream media claim that the lack of improvement in Autism rates "proves" that mercury in vaccines are safe!

    Sarah, this blog post is invaluable. Thank you so much for spreading the truth.

  79. Hi Sarah.

    Just a comment from personal experience here, but I don't want to cause any controversy. When I was pregnant with my first son, knowing I am Rh-, I received a Rhogam shot in my second trimester, per routine. In-utero afterwards, my son was extremely active – to the point that I could not even sit down without extreme pain in my ribs. He was born a very irritable baby with many different issues we had to deal with. Eventually he was diagnosed with high-functioning autism at 3-4 years of age. I always thought it was just one of those things, but now, after much education, I do believe it was the Rhogam shot that hurt him in-utero, and caused his diagnosis. The story does have a happy ending though, as he is now a regular functioning guy who is one of the blessings and delights of our lives. That is another story in itself . . . .


    • Lori

      same thing – I am Rh-, my mom is Rh-, my husband is Rh positive. Pregnant in 1999 with first born and just blindly did whatever dr.s said. They said have to have RhoGam as you are negative. So did. Pregnancy all down hill from them – son born early after induction, moved very little after the shot, he was diagnosed as IUGR and when he was a few years old as autistic. All this and turns out he is Rh negative so absolutely no need for the shot which given the year likely had themersol in it. also makes me nervous to have so many people’s blood inside me all the time though maybe it expelled itself by now but maybe left traces of diseases to come – who knows. Anyhow 2nd child, I refused shot during pregnancy, dr. questionned me but I was well versed on it. Nurses at hospital after that child born – she is Rh positive came at me with the Rho Gam shot and I refused to consent. They went to get the dr. I told the nurse I plan on having no more children, the shot if for the next child’s protection. Accidents happen they said. I said no. Dr. came and said I disagree wtih you but your choice and he said to nurses she had the shot for her son so she is covered (which I don’t think is true but it shut them up). We did not have any more kids and since there were no complications with daughter’s birth as were with son no necessary I think. Daughter is normal, gifted in fact. Not to say am totally against rhogam as it can allow people to have more children than in the past if they are Rh negative and before RhoGam cap was to have only 2 kids then risks go up – that is why I only have one sibling. People need to be informed. Also of course article wrong – my dad is Rh positive and I am Rh negative and funny thing is when I was born nurses told my mom I was Rh negative and would never have a cap on kids limit like she did. When I got pregnant her and I were shocked I was Rh negative – she was upset that nurses lied to her. I said maybe your blood changes or tests are better now – no worries Mom. When RhoGam invented she wrote researchers to tell them thank you, thank you, too late for her to have more kids that she would have liked to have but how great for others. Thx for your comment and Audrey for the article

  80. Hi Sarah, I am Rh- and both my parents were Rh+. My then husband was Rh+, and after my first son was born more than 36 years ago, I received a shot of RhoGam due to his being Rh+. My second son is Rh- so no shot after him. Did they use the thimerosal in shots way back then?

  81. Ann Marie @ CHEESESLAVE September 9, 2010 at 2:17 pm

    What a great post, thank you!

    I only wish this had been up when I was pregnant with my first. I had a funny feeling about that RhoGam shot but didn't know enough to refuse it.

  82. Sarah, the Healthy Home Economist September 9, 2010 at 2:06 pm

    Hi Beth, thank you for making that point! You are right, that wording should be fixed that so it does not detract from the main message of the post which is about the RhoGam shot dangers.

  83. Sarah, the Healthy Home Economist September 9, 2010 at 1:55 pm

    Audry, thank you for the clarification. By the way, when I was researching for this article, I came across some information that a person who is Rh negative can apparently become Rh positive using diet and herbs alone. I thought about using this in the post, but thought it would be too confusing to go into the genetics too deeply and cloud the overall message about the Rhogam shot and its dangers.

    • Hi Sarah! Thank you so much for this info. I was reading another person’s blog, who had this article as a link from hers. I have 8 children & have had 2 miscarriages. I don’t even like to think how many rhogam shots! My question to you is, would you mind sharing the link to the info about being able to change from negative to positive they diet & herbs? I would be so grateful to see this. Thanks again, Jessica

        • Hey Sarah, now am confused. Though you did not cover it in your article, you do state in your comment responding to Audry “when I was researching for this article, I came across some information that a person who is Rh negative can apparently become Rh positive using diet and herbs alone.” which is what I think Jessica is referring to.


  84. Interesting post. I have done tons of research on this as I am RH- and mostly came to the same conclusions and findings as you. The only thing I disagree with is when you said "the only way a person can be Rh negative is if both parents are also Rh negative." My mom is Rh- and my dad is not. I am Rh- even though both of my parents are not. My husband is Rh+ and I am Rh-. Our first son was Rh+ and I ended up with an "emergency" c-section with him and had the shot after he was born and his blood was tested (not during pregnacny though). Our second son was a VBAC and I again refused the shot during pregnancy and he was Rh- (so I did not have the shot) even though we both are not Rh-.

  85. Very interesting article about the RhoGAM shot. I just wanted to point out a minor error:

    "the only way a person can be Rh negative is if BOTH parents are also Rh negative. If either parent is Rh positive, any children will also be Rh positive."

    This is not quite accurate. Rh inheritance is similar to eye color – the positive gene is dominant, so if both parents are Rh negative, all children will be negative, but an Rh positive parent can have the recessive negative gene, so if one or even both parents are Rh positive, their children can still be Rh negative.

    That doesn't affect anything you said about the shot, of course.

    • Just to reiterate what Audry said:
      “the only way a person can be Rh negative is if BOTH parents are also Rh negative. If either parent is Rh positive, any children will also be Rh positive.”

      This is not quite accurate. Rh inheritance is similar to eye color — the positive gene is dominant, so if both parents are Rh negative, all children will be negative, but an Rh positive parent can have the recessive negative gene, so if one or even both parents are Rh positive, their children can still be Rh negative.

      Audry is correct. I learned recently that both my parents are Rh+… I am Rh-. I teased them about being adopted, but the fact is there is no doubt I am biologically their child. Rh+ people are either ++ or +-. Rh- people are always –. As it turns out, my parents are both +-… so they are considered positive, yet they both gave me their – so I turned out to be Rh-.

      Also, the 28-week shot makes sense for certain specific women who are at high risk of a placental abruption (which is my case). If I were to have a partial abruption and not realize it, my body would begin forming the antibodies completely without my knowledge… by the time I gave birth, it would be too late for Rhogam.

      As for the argument that the antibodies could invade/attack the baby in the event of a trauma, that could only happen if the BABY began bleeding… the chances of the baby himself suffering so much trauma that he started bleeding, are MUCH slimmer than a bleed from the placenta. So, I’m weighing my risks and would prefer to have protection from a likely event rather than worry about an unlikely one.

      • I also wanted to reiterate the point these ladies have made. I am Rh-0, my husband is positive, but 4 of my 5 kids are Rh – (I haven’t tested the 5th). I have not been sensitized to date, even with 5 births and 2 miscarriages. I have always been adamant about about leaving the cord till it has quit functioning, and apparantly I have strong genes.

        • My dad was RH + and Mom was RH- and I am negative. Your parents don’t have to be neg for you to be neg… might want to check on that one.

          Know 8 RH- people who have the same problem. Myhsuband is rh+ and our daughter is rh-

      • Sarah Keturah Miller November 10, 2013 at 9:35 pm

        Sarah-I love your site and am thankful for your post on rhogam especially as I am negative and my husband is positive. I assume this means he is a +dominant with a -negative recessive since both of my boys have been -negative and so far have been able to avoid any rhogam thoughts. As I was reading at the end, when you said “My own Rh negative Mother (my Dad is Rh Positive) delivered 7 healthy, Rh positive children with no Rhogam shots by simply eating healthy and having natural births”, was this you Sarah or Julia(a different person that didn’t write the article? If it was the article writer, could you please edit the bottom of your article to read a revision? I love the idea of never taking Rhogam, and seek to do so, but I don’t want to get my hopes up by referring to someone elses success when they later revise in their comments below that “I learned recently that both my parents are Rh+… I am Rh-. I teased them about being adopted, but the fact is there is no doubt I am biologically their child. Rh+ people are either ++ or +-. Rh- people are always —. As it turns out, my parents are both +-… so they are considered positive, yet they both gave me their — so I turned out to be Rh-“. This is validly a concern since it means you didn’t have a negative mother and positive father. If I am mixed up, I am glad to be told so and would love to learn more about how to prevent ever taking Rhogam as the idea and implementation are HIGHLY UNPOPULAR even for the community of GAPS, homebirthing, homeopathics that I socialize with. My midwife might be okay with it if I referenced this article and a little more that you can suggest. Also, just as a bonus. There is now a mother’s blood test from Maternit21 with 99% accuracy that can tell you the blood type of your baby before they are born starting as early as 10 weeks gestation. Finally, labwork that makes a difference instead of a huge buck. Speaking of bucks, it is under $50.

      • responding to: “the only way a person can be Rh negative is if BOTH parents are also Rh negative. If either parent is Rh positive, any children will also be Rh positive.”

        I am also proof this is not true. My mother is B- and my father is A+. I am AB-

        My mom had my brother, and then miscarried 7 times before having me, she was told because of her blood type and her becoming sensitized during my brother’s birth. He is A+ too. the other babies were likely +. I only survived because I’m – like my mother

        Now onto my family, my husband is A+ and I’m AB-. Both of our children are AB+ and I have never gotten a Rhogam shot. I refuse to put blood products in my body unless it was necessary to save my life. I would just stop having children if I became sensitized. And I am done after 2 either way.

  86. Thank you for sharing this. I wish I had known this years ago. I am Rh- and my hubby is Rh+. I had 2 miscarriages before our precious daughter was born (she is Rh+ like her daddy), and 2 more miscarriages since. Needless to say, I've had more than my fair share of RhoGam shots. At least the most recent one I knew to ask if it was thimeresol-free – that's a step in the right direction at least. Now, should we be blessed again someday, I can be even more well prepared. Thanks.


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